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Commercial Banking (5,780 Books)


A system of trading in money which involved safeguarding deposits and making funds available for borrowers, banking developed in the Middle Ages in response to the growing need for credit in commerce. The lending functions of banks were undertaken in England by money- lenders. Until their expulsion by Edward I in 1291, the most important money-lenders were Jews. They were replaced by Italian merchants who had papal dispensations to lend money at interest. In the 13th cent. credit was essential to finance commerce and major projects.

 
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China an Evaluation of World Bank Assistance

By: The World Bank

Economics

The evaluation was prepared by Gene Tidrick (Task Manager, OEDCR), with assistance from Anthony Churchill and Cordula Thum (Energy and Transport), Christopher Findlay (Agriculture), Azizur Khan (Poverty), Lu Mai (Analytical and Advisory Services), Elaine Ooi (Health), S. Ramachandran (Finance), Daniel Ritchie (Decentralization and Safeguards), Robert Varley (Water Resources and Environment), Peter Nolan (Enterprise Reform), and Manuel Penalver (Portfolio Management). Qia...

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Ieg Evaluation of World Bank Support for Client Training

By: The World Bank

Economics

The quality of institutions is critical for sustainable development. The difference in quality of institutions is the most significant determinant of differences in sustained economic growth, according to cross-country research and case studies.1 Addressing capacity constraints, particularly in the public sectors of developing countries, is thus crucial to achieving goals of poverty reduction and sustainable economic growth. Capacity development has three interrelated di...

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An Independent Review of World Bank Support to Capacity Building i...

By: The World Bank

Economics

This study of Ethiopia is one of six country case studies undertaken as part of an independent evaluation by the World Bank?s Operations Evaluation Department (OED) of the relevance and effectiveness of World Bank support for public sector capacity building in Sub-Saharan Africa over the past ten years (1995-2004). In each case study, particular attention has been paid to the Bank?s support for capacity building in four focal areas: education, health, roads and public fi...

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An Independent Review of World Bank Support to Capacity Building i...

By: The World Bank

Economics

The Bank?s support for capacity building has contributed to both the successes and the failures. Since FY1993, the Bank committed about $1.04 billion of investment lending in the four sectors reviewed of which $337 million (33 percent) was allocated to capacity building activities. In addition, the Bank provided some $689 million in adjustment/budget support of which $296 million (43 percent) supported capacity building measures. No overall strategy for capacity building...

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The World Banks Approach to Global Programs : An Independent Evalu...

By: The World Bank

Economics

This report completes the first phase of an independent evaluation by the Operations Evaluation Department (OED) of the World Bank?s involvement in global programs. The approach paper for the evaluation was presented to the Committee on Development Effectiveness (CODE) of the World Bank?s Board of Executive Directors in January 2001. The draft Evaluation Strategy Paper was discussed at a workshop in Washington on June 19, 2001. The participants included about 50 people: ...

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An Evaluation of World Bank Investment Climate Activities

By: The World Bank

Economics

The Investment Climate Study is a joint evaluation of the Operations Evaluation Department (covering the activities of IBRD/IDA), the Operations Evaluation Group (covering IFC), and the Operations Evaluation Unit (covering MIGA). The combined findings are summarized in a separate Overview report. This report presents OED?s evaluation of Bank activities. The OED report reviews the Bank?s investment climate lending and non-lending activities during fiscal years 1993 throug...

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Improving Investment Climates : An Evaluation of World Bank Group ...

By: The World Bank

Economics

The Investment Climate Study is a joint evaluation of the Operations Evaluation Department (covering the activities of IBRD/IDA), the Operations Evaluation Group (covering IFC), and the Operations Evaluation Unit (covering MIGA).1 The purpose of the evaluation is to assess the effectiveness of the World Bank Group (WBG) in helping its member countries improve their investment climates, within the context of the WBG?s overall mission of poverty reduction and sustainable d...

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An Independent Review of World Bank Support for Capacity Building ...

By: The World Bank

Economics

Thus, the design of individual operations has ranged from very good in the roads sector to extremely poor in education (the Primary Education Project or PEP). Sequencing and complementarity of activities have been uneven. Projects in community development have built on previous phases (MASAF -1, 2 and 3), and in PFM have also provided continued support to key areas (IDP2, FIMTAP, Fiscal Restructuring and Development Projects - 1, 2 and 3). This has ensured general cohere...

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An Independent Review of World Bank Support to Capacity Building i...

By: The World Bank

Economics

During FY93-04, the World Bank committed a total of $775.3 million to Mali, currently the 15th largest IDA borrower in Africa. Some $160 million of investment lending has been committed in the four sectors examined in this review, of which $54 million (33 percent) was allocated to capacity building activities. In addition, the Bank provided some $180 million in adjustment/budget support of which about a quarter was aimed at capacity building objectives (as shown in Table...

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An Independent Review of World Bank Support for Capacity Building ...

By: The World Bank

Economics

Since the 1994 elections, the Government has developed sector strategies in the four focal sectors of this review?public financial management (PFM), roads, education, and health. These strategies have paid increased attention to building capacities for improved sector management and to achieving country led coordination of donor support. But problems with ensuring coherence and consistency of capacity building efforts across sectors are only beginning to be resolved thro...

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Institutional Changes for Independent Evaluation at the World Bank

By: The World Bank

Economics

The Operations Evaluation Department (OED) is an independent unit within the World Bank; it reports directly to the Bank?s Board of Executive Directors. OED assesses what works, and what does not; how a borrower plans to run and maintain a project; and the lasting contribution of the Bank to a country?s overall development. The goals of evaluation are to learn from experience, to provide an objective basis for assessing the results of the Bank?s work, and to provide acco...

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Pakistan : An Evaluation of the World Banks Assistance

By: The World Bank

Economics

This evaluation was prepared by Lily Chu (Independent Evaluation Group, Country Evaluation and Regional Relations), the Task Manager. Background papers, as inputs to the Country Assistance Evaluation, were prepared by James Brown, Geoffrey Fox, Manuel Hinds, Adil Kanaan, and Richard D. Stern (consultants), and the Center for Global Development (Nancy Birdsall, Adeel Malik, and Milan Vishnav). Peer reviewers were Professor Ayesha Jalal (Tufts University), Mustapha Nabli (...

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Bridging Troubled Waters : A World Bank Strategy

By: The World Bank

Economics

The consensus that emerged from the Second World Water Forum, held at The Hague in March 2000, was that the annual investment required by 2025 to meet the world?s needs for water for irrigation, industry, water supply and sanitation, and environmental management will increase to $180 billion, from the current $70?80 billion. Such a massive change can be achieved only if developing countries are able to create an investment climate conducive to the private sector and to a...

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Operations Evaluation Department World Bank

By: The World Bank

Economics

This country case study provides an assessment of the PRSP process in Albania as of mid-2003, and covers both PRSP formulation and implementation. The PRSP was completed by the Government of Albania in November 2001 but its implementation was delayed due to changes in government until June 2002. An OED mission visited the country in March of 2003, providing the bulk of the evaluative material for the assessments in this report. The report also covers elements of the firs...

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Operations Evaluation Department World Bank

By: The World Bank

Economics

OED has completed an evaluation of the PRS initiative and the Bank?s support to this initiative. The synthesis report was submitted to the Committee on Development Effectiveness of the World Bank?s Board in June 2004 and discussed by CODE in July 2004.1 As the PRSP is by nature a country-level process, eight country case studies2 have been undertaken in support of the synthesis report to provide in-depth country-level experience with the initiative and the Bank?s support...

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Operations Evaluation Department World Bank : Ethiopia Case Study

By: The World Bank

Economics

OED has completed an evaluation of the PRS initiative and the Bank?s support to this initiative. The synthesis report was submitted to the Committee on Development Effectiveness (CODE) of the World Bank?s Board in June 2004 and discussed by CODE in July 2004.1 As the PRSP is by nature a country-level process, eight country case studies2 have been undertaken in support of the synthesis report to provide indepth country-level experience with the initiative and the Bank?s s...

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Operations Evaluation Department World Bank : Mauritania Case Study

By: The World Bank

Economics

OED has completed an evaluation of the PRS initiative and the Bank?s support to this initiative. The synthesis report was submitted to the Committee on Development Effectiveness of the World Bank?s Board in June 2004 and discussed by CODE in July 2004.1 As the PRSP is by nature a country-level process, eight country case studies2 have been undertaken in support of the synthesis report to provide in-depth country-level experience with the initiative and the Bank?s support...

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The World Bank in Turkey : 19932004

By: The World Bank

Economics

It looks at the Bank?s contribution to the achievement of those outcomes and the lessons for the Bank?s future activities both in Turkey and more broadly. The evaluation included a review of relevant documents, complemented by interviews with the staff of the Bank and other key donors, as well as representatives of the Turkish government, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and civil society.

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World Bank Facts on Forests

By: The World Bank

Economics

Forests serve vital ecosystem functions, regulating water cycles, for example, by storing and slowly releasing rainfall so that droughts and floods are avoided, and preventing erosion of topsoil.

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World Bank Research Observer Cumulative Index, 19941999 : Titles

By: The World Bank

Economics

Squire, Lyn (See Lionel Demery), 11, no. 1 (February 1996): 39?59. Squire, Lyn (See Shantayanan Devarajan and Sethaput Suthiwart-Narueput), 12, no. 1 (February 1997): 35?46. Srivastava, Jitendra (See Steven Jaffee), 9, no. 1 (January 1994): 97?117. Stiglitz, Joseph E., ?Some Lessons from the East Asian Miracle,? 11, no. 2 (August 1996): 151?77. Stiglitz, Joseph E. and Marilou Uy, ?Financial Markets, Public Policy, and the East Asian Miracle,? 11, no. 2 (August 1996): 249?76.

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