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Commercial Banking (5,780 Books)


A system of trading in money which involved safeguarding deposits and making funds available for borrowers, banking developed in the Middle Ages in response to the growing need for credit in commerce. The lending functions of banks were undertaken in England by money- lenders. Until their expulsion by Edward I in 1291, the most important money-lenders were Jews. They were replaced by Italian merchants who had papal dispensations to lend money at interest. In the 13th cent. credit was essential to finance commerce and major projects.

 
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World Bank Port Reform Tool Kit Module 4 : Legal Tools for Port Reform

By: The World Bank

Economics

INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW: Transformation of port structures often requires new legislation. This Module identifies fundamental points to consider when developing such legislation, with examples from existing port reform regimes. The examples provided should be used for reference purposes only. Because every country has a unique legal and institutional context, it is impossible in practice to present a model law that fits the wide variety of fundamentally different legal...

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The World Bank Port Reform Toolkit Overview

By: The World Bank

Economics

OBJECTIVES: The process of institutional reform is complex. Moreover, most countries undertake the kinds of fundamental institutional reforms that shift boundaries between the public and private sectors less than once in each generation. Hence, the knowledge necessary to carry the reform process forward needs to be built up in most countries from a near zero base. The port reform toolkit is designed to lower the learning curve for institutional renewal by providing backg...

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Ayudaurbana. Com an Ucci/World Bank Knowledge Sharing Initiative f...

By: The World Bank

Economics

What is UCCI? -- Union of Capital Cities of Ibero-America, founded in 1982 in Madrid -- Leading role in the international municipal movement -- Promotes ties among cities and studies issues that affect the municipalities -- Contributes to enhance the sustainable and harmonic development in the region...

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Overview of the World Banks Experience in Urban Projects with Comm...

By: The World Bank

Economics

Introduction: Community Participation (CP), as an operational approach, has long been introduced into the Bank?s urban projects. Over the past 30 years or so, the Bank?s urban projects have increasingly used CP approaches that give communities control over decisions and resources. However, there is still a lack of sound statistics and analysis that can provide an overall image of the Bank?s efforts in this area. To better understand how to enhance the effectiveness of CP...

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Cities in Transition : World Bank Urban and Local Government Strategy

By: The World Bank

Economics

Winds of change affecting urban areas and local governments? At the threshold of the 21st century cities and towns form the front line in the development campaign. Within a generation the majority of the developing world?s population will live in urban areas and the number of urban residents in developing countries will double, increasing by over 2 billion inhabitants. The scale of this urbanization is unprecedented, and poses daunting requirements for countries to meet ...

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Cities in Transition : World Bank Urban and Local Government Strategy

By: The World Bank

Economics

The exercise of preparing a new urban and local government strategy for the World Bank began in late 1997 as a cross-sectoral, cross-network effort coordinated by the Urban Anchor and Urban Partnership in the Transportation, Water, and Urban Development Department. With guidance from a Bankwide steering committee, the strategy activity focused initially on organizing eight workshops at the Bank, spanning all the major urban and local governance issues. These workshops br...

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World Bank Water Forum 2002 6 to 8 May Water and Sanitation in Pos...

By: World Bank Water Forum 2003

Economics

What is included in the capital that is going to be privatized -- Does the capital calculated include all the company?s property? -- To solve the problem of non-paying for services by users that are financed from either municipal, cantonal or entity budget -- To establish principles and mechanisms in the decisionmaking process related to the unit price -- The water tariffs must cover all costs (including investment costs) -- Reduction of UFW -- To solve the problem of surplus of employees...

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Water Supply and Sanitation Blue Pages the World Bank Sector Guide...

By: The World Bank

Economics

Introduction: Water & Sanitation (W&S) services are essential in the fight against poverty. TheWorld Bank Group?s mission in the sector is to help our member countries ensure that all their people, including the poor, can gain access to efficient and sustainableW&S services. The task is a huge one and requires strong and sustained engagement: one billion people still lack access to safe water, two billion lack safe sanitation. Progress will require large investments and ...

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World Bank Brief Water Supply and Sanitation

By: The World Bank

Economics

I: INVESTMENT WITHOUT REFORM WILL BE INEFFECTUAL IN REACHING THE MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS: Creating the conditions for reform is the first priority: Millions of people, the vast majority of whom are very poor, still lack access to safe water and improved sanitation. Changing this situation means creating the right conditions for more accountable, efficient, equitable and effective service providers who can supply water for all in the long term. Making this change ofte...

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Ordering World Bank Publications

By: The World Bank

Economics

CUSTOMERS OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES: Contact your local World Bank publications distributor for information on prices in local currency and payment terms. (A complete list of distributors begins on page 115.) If no distributor is listed for your country, send this order form to the U.S. address at the left. Orders from countries with local distributors will be returned to the customer.

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Permanent Household Survey Household Questionnaire World Bank Livi...

By: The World Bank

Economics

Person interviewed: preferably the head of household. I f he/she is not available, find a 'principal resp.ondenta to answer the questions in his/her place. The person selected must be a hember of the household who is able to 0ive inforhation on the other household hehbers.

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Hazards of Nature, Risks to Development : Chapter 2-The World Bank...

By: The World Bank

Economics

And although a few disasters have been devastating to the better-off (such as when cities with a large number of poorly built and badly designed high-rise apartments are hit by earthquakes), unquestionably the most vulnerable to disaster are the poor, who live in dangerous zones, on marginal lands, and have precarious livelihoods. The Bank has a major stake in ensuring that country assistance following a disaster contributes to long-term development, and that the potenti...

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Natural Disasters Are Increasing so Must the World Banks Preventio...

By: The World Bank

Economics

Washington, DC, April 21 -- A new report, ?Hazards of Nature, Risks to Development,? released today by the World Bank?s Independent Evaluation Group (IEG), calls for new thinking that integrates predictable disaster risks into development programs. The report concludes that it is possible to anticipate where many natural disasters will strike, yet expresses concerns that the World Bank?s disaster assistance efforts are underutilizing these vital lifesaving forecasts. Nat...

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Sample of Kyrgyzstan World Bank Household Survey, 1993

By: The World Bank

Economics

The purpose of this sample was to represent all households and individuals in Kyrgyzstan in Fall, 1993. In drawing the [this] sample, we -- strove to approximate a probability sample--that is, a sample in which every household had some non-zero calculable random chance of falling into the sample. This, for example, eliminated the possibility of using quotas or of choosing typical cities or regions. Both of these approaches generate inferior samples to which the findings ...

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The World Bank Operations Evaluation Department : Review of World ...

By: The World Bank

Economics

Washington, May 19, 2005 - The World Bank must further customize its programs to different countries in order to reduce poverty, according to an annual review released by the independent Operations Evaluation Department (OED). Focusing on 15 years of Bank assistance, the Annual Review of Development Effectiveness (ARDE) concludes that the Bank has refocused its mission and strategy to help contribute to poverty reduction. But it has paid insufficient attention to issues ...

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Evaluating Gender and Development at the World Bank

By: The World Bank

Economics

The Bank was one of the first multilateral organizations to require staff to consider and address the impact of its assistance on women as part of a required sociological analysis during the appraisal of investment projects. Operational Policy 4.20, ?The Gender Dimensions of Development,? was issued in 1994 as part of the Bank?s overall poverty reduction initiative. It complements project-level operational procedures and requires that gender issues be considered in the d...

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Striking the Right Balance World Bank Forest Strategy

By: The World Bank

Economics

Striking the right balance will require tradeoffs between global environmental goals and the diverse development realities in client countries (especially the needs of the forest-dependent poor, including indigenous peoples), between the twin objectives of conservation and development, and between short-term costs and long-term benefits. To be credible, the revised Bank strategy must either align human and financial Bank resources with its objectives in the forest sector...

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Capacity Building in Africa : An Oed Evaluation of World Bank Support

By: The World Bank

Economics

The report benefited from external expert advice received at (and following) an entry workshop from Deborah Brautigam, Merilee Grindle, Calestous Juma, Joyce Moock, Harris Mule, and Julie Robison. Harris Mule also served as an external peer reviewer. The Operations Evaluation Department (OED) acknowledges the support for the evaluation provided by the Agency for Development and Cooperation of Switzerland; the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Norway; and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Denmark.

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An Independent Review of World Bank Support for Capacity Building ...

By: The World Bank

Economics

This study of Benin is one of six country case studies undertaken as part of an independent evaluation by the World Bank?s Operations Evaluation Department (OED) of the relevance and effectiveness of World Bank support for public sector capacity building in Sub-Saharan Africa over the past ten years (1995-2004). In each case study, particular attention has been paid to the Bank?s support for capacity building in four focal areas: education, health, roads, and public expenditure management.

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Carbon Finance at the World Bank : Questions and Answers

By: The World Bank

Economics

With the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol on February 16, 2005, more than one hundred and forty countries agree to work together to fight global climate change. The thirty six industrialized countries that ratified the Protocol - namely Canada, Japan, members of the European Union, as well economies in transition from Central and Eastern Europe ? agree to put in place policies and measures to collectively reduce 5 percent of their emissions between 2008 to 2012 as ...

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