A system of trading in money which involved safeguarding deposits and making funds available for borrowers, banking developed in the Middle Ages in response to the growing need for credit in commerce. The lending functions of banks were undertaken in England by money- lenders. Until their expulsion by Edward I in 1291, the most important money-lenders were Jews. They were replaced by Italian merchants who had papal dispensations to lend money at interest. In the 13th cent. credit was essential to finance commerce and major projects.
Excerpt: Over the past twenty years, members of the donor community have increasingly recognized that corruption ? commonly (but not uniquely) defined as the abuse of public office for private gain ? is a major impediment to economic development. As the new USAID ...
Excerpt: Executive Summary. Jordan acceded to the WTO in April 2000. This requires Jordan to comply with 16 different trade-related agreements as well as commitments on goods and services market access, and other commitments set out in its accession Working Party R ...
Medical Reference Publication
Recognizing the need for an urgent response of the international community to the rapidly
developing epidemics of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV in countrics of eastern
Europe and central Asia, the WHO Regional Office for Europe (WHOEURO) and the Joint
United Nations Programme on HIVIAIDS (UNAIDS) called for a meeting of international and
bilateral organizations. Organizations invited were those already involved or with a potential to
1.1 Background and objectives of the meeting
Health is a fundamental human right. Access to health care, including essential
drugs is central to realizing this right. Among countries, there are wide
variations in the roles which the public and private sectors (for-profit, and
private not-for-profit) play in financing and providing health services. Within
and across sectors, different mechanisms, with different policy implications, exist
for financing and providing servic...
Government Reference Publication
Excerpt: Key Strategic Issues. Funds are requested by FMS to continue providing critical services to millions of United States taxpayers and its other diverse base of customers and to maintain a high level of success in achieving Treasury?s and FMS? strategic goals. The FMS? Fiscal Year 2006 Budget embodies Treasury?s leadership strategy to create value for the American people, provide responsible and effective stewardship over the Government?s finances, and focus on qua...
Excerpt: FOREWORD ... iii LEGEND ... v LEGISLATIVE BRANCH Architect of the Capitol ... 1 Government Accountability Office ... 1 Government Printing Office ... 1 Library of Congress ... 1 U.S. Tax Court ... 2 EXECUTIVE BRANCH Executive Office of the President ... 4 White House Office ... 4 Office of Policy Development ... 6 Office of Administration ... 7 Office of Management and Budget ... 7 Council of Economic Advisors ... 8 Council on Environmental Quality ... 8 Office ...
Nutrition Reference Publication
Excerpt: Alleyne, G.A.O ... Hay, R.W ... Picou, D.I ... Stanfield, J.P. et Whitehead, R.G. 1977. Protein-energy malnutrition. Arnold, Londres. Banque mondiale. 1993. World development report. Investing in health. Oxford University Press, Oxford, Royaume-Uni. Banque mondiale. 1994. A new agenda for women?s health and nutrition. Washington. Banque mondiale. 1994. Enriching lives. Overcoming vitamin and mineral malnutrition in developing countries. Washington. Benenson, A.S...
In welcoming participants and observers to Luxembourg, the Minister of Health, Mr Johny
Lahure, stressed the considerable achievements of OCP both in the field of health and in opening up
fertile, riverain areas for socio-economic development. The Minister underlined the important tasks
of the Joint Programme Committee at the current session and assured the Programme of the continued
support of his country.
70 representatives of government agencies and organizations attended the Second
Meetlng of Interested Parties (MXP), convened by the WHO Action Programme on Essential
Drugs and Vaccines from 22-24 June 1988 at the World Health Organization (WHO)
Headquarters in Gcneva to consider:
(a) the progress and plans of the Action Programme, including the progress of
WHO'S revised drug strategy;
(b) the possible establishment of a Management Review Committee;
INTERNATIONAL DRINKING WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION DECADE
Catalogue of External Support
The objective of FA0 in relation to the Decade is to create a linkage of activities for
the promotion of agricultural production with those for improved rural environmental health.
The base from which FA0 can support the implementation of the Decade is determined by the
programme and staffing levels established in order to meet the organization's
responsibilities to assist member stat...
Following a visit by a delegation from the French ministry responsible
for health to the WHO Regional Office for Europe in Copenhagen, it was decided
to organize, in France, a meeting on the progress of the International
Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade, during which a number of specific
issues would be studied.
It was agreed between the French Government and the Regional Office that
the meeting should be held at the International Water Centre in ...
Rrprest?ntatives of 25 governments elected memherr of the Joint Coordinating Board
(.ICR) - and of the three co-sponsoring agencies of the Spccial Programme for Research md
Trailling in Tropical Diseases (TDR), mct as JCB(13) at WHO headquarters, Gcneva, on
26 and 27 June 1990. Representatives of 13 governments and 13 organizations particiyeted
in thc ~cssion as official observers. The JCR members and observers participating fn the
ses.;ion the naa~cn of ...
Excerpt: On the morning of September 11, 2001, a small group of dedicated fanatics hijacked four commercial airplanes in flight, crashed three of them into buildings symbolic in various ways of what they found offensive about the United States, and changed the course of American history. Shortly after this occurred, a group of CRS analysts was called upon to assess the possible effects of the terrorist attacks on the U.S. economy and the ability of the government to deal...
Excerpt: There are many strains of avian influenza virus that can cause varying amounts of clinical illness in poultry. Bird (or avian) flu outbreaks have occurred at various times around the world.1 Influenza A/H5N1 is a strain of bird flu currently spreading acr ...
of the Trachoma Alliance. In July 1996, WHO hosted a Global Scientific Meeting on Future
Approaches to Trachoma Control which had proposed the integrated SAFE strategy for trachoma
control (S for Surgery, A for Antibiotic treatment, F for Facial cleanliness, E for Environmental
A Planning Meeting of Interested Parties held in November 1996 had taken further the
formation of the Trachoma Alliance. The challenge now before the new group is to obtain the
Tuberculosis, a completely curable communicable disease. is a major health hazard in several
developing countries, particularly in India. Recognizing the grave consequences associated
with the spread of TB. Govemment of India, in 1962 launched National Tuberculosis
programme (NTP), to control the spread of TB in India.
After three decades of intervention through the NTP it was observed that the effectiveness of
the NTP was moderate. According to an esti...
Summary: Congress has long been concerned about whether U.S. policy advances the national interest in reducing the role of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missiles that could deliver them. Recipients of China’s technology reportedly include Pakistan and countries that the State Department says support terrorism, such as Iran and North Korea. This report discusses the national security problem of China’s r...
Summary: Congress has long been concerned about whether U.S. policy advances the U.S. interest in reducing the role of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missiles that could deliver them. Recipients of China’s technology include Pakistan and countries that the State Department says support terrorism, such as Iran, North Korea, and Libya. The terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, added an urgent U.S. inter...
Summary: The 108th Congress will be faced early on with a number of pressing foreign affairs, defense, and trade issues. This report provides background information on the issues most likely to be taken up in the first session, analyzes the congressional role in shaping U.S. policy on these key issues, and lists CRS products that provide more detailed discussion and analysis. The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon dramatically altered the U.S. p...
Excerpt: As the global campaign against terrorism continues and a possible war with Iraq looms, Congress must complete action on the FY2003 appropriations bills and begin consideration of the budget for FY2004. Congressional actions are likely to reflect the reality that the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States (hereafter referred to as 9/11) have, in some fundamental ways, changed America and the way it looks at the world. For many, 9/11 destroyed ...