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International Relations


International Relations (IR) (occasionally referred to as International Studies (IS)) is the study of relationships between countries, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and multinational corporations (MNCs). It is both an academic and public policy field, and can be either positive or normative as it both seeks to analyze as well as formulate the foreign policy of particular states. It is often considered a branch of political science (especially after 1988 UNESCO nomenclature), but an important sector of academia prefer to treat it as an interdisciplinary field of study.

 
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Spheres of Influence Airing on the Side of Caution Or

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: In May 1999, a federal appeals court ruled that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) had violated the U.S. Constitution when it strengthened regulations for ground-level ozone and particulate matter (PM). EPA administrator Carol Browner called the decision ?one of the most bizarre and extreme decisions ever rendered? in environmental law and said that if it were allowed to stand, 1 million Americans would suffer serious respiratory illnesses and 15,000...

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The Trickle-Down Theory of Cleancer Air

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Relentlessly single-minded, microbes have tirelessly gone about the business of life since the earth first cooled, pretty much unremarked by humanity unless it is to be labeled for their sometimes negative effects on health. But as living organisms that display many of the same life processes as the larger, more visible denizens of the planet, microbes are increasingly being recognized for their value.

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Lights, Chemicals, Action at New Lab for Phototoxicology

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: In the delta of southeastern Arkansas, at the National Center for Toxicological Research in Jefferson, two large laboratory rooms are bright with sunlight?not the kind that streams in through windows, but simulated solar energy from tiny lamps using an electromagnetic radiation source that closely mimics the spectrum of sunlight.

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Arsenic in Asia Water at Its Worst

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Arsenic contamination of drinking water is a global problem, but nowhere is the problem more severe than in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India, where over 112 million reside in areas where groundwater concentrations exceed the World Health Organizations (WHO) maximum permissible level of 50 micrograms per liter (micrograms/L) and its lower recommended concentration of 10 micrograms/L. Arsenic exposure is associated with health effects such as skin lesions and lun...

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Research Areas of Special Emphasis

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Within the wide spectrum of research supported by the NIEHS, the research areas listed below have been identified by the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council as topics of special interest to forwarding the research programs of the institute. The complete list and descriptions of these topics can be found on the DERT Web page.

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Niehs K12 Program

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Because of the publics desire to understand the effects of and risks to human health from exposure to physical and chemical agents, there is a critical need to develop a mechanism for educating people about environmental health science issues. To address this need, the NIEHS initiated an education program for children in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K?12) that will enhance the dissemination, utilization, and effective implementation of materials and curri...

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Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 108, No. 7, July 2000-Nieh...

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Deep in the heart of Texas?as well as in Arizona, New Mexico, California, and the six Mexican states that lie just across the border?rapid industrialization and the accompanying population growth have spawned a family of environmental problems that have developed into a full-fledged environmental and public health crisis. In an effort to address these problems, the NIEHS is working to establish the Binational Border Research in Disease and Geospatial Research (BRIDGE) Program.

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Innovations Lipid Lather Removes Metals

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Five of the top 20 hazardous substances on the 1999 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Priority List of Hazardous Substances are metals: arsenic, lead, mercury, cadmium, and chromium. Studies of U.S. hazardous waste remediation sites show that heavy metals are the single most prevalent class of contaminant. Metal wastes are produced by a variety of sources including mines, tanneries, and electroplating facilitie...

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Grading Lead in Schools New Test Shows Safety

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: In this months issue, investigators Charles V. Shorten and Marijane K. Hooven of West Chester University in Pennsylvania report on a method that may give a more realistic measure of the exposure of preschool children to lead-contaminated dust [EHP 108:663?666].

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Niehs/Epa Superfund Basic Research Program

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: NIEHS/EPA Superfund Basic Research Program (SBRP) is committed to supporting cutting-edge science that meets the needs of the national Superfund program. The SBRP, originally established in 1986 under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, is universitybased and supports multidisciplinary teams of researchers to address the broad public health concerns arising from the release of hazardous substances at Superfund sites. The SBRP has undergone five ful...

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Genetic Susceptibility and Variability of Human Malformations

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: According to the National Vital Statistics Reports from the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for 1993?1995, congenital anomalies are the leading cause of death in children under the age of one, the second-leading cause (after unintentional injuries) in ages one through four, and the third-leading cause in ages five through nine. Birth defects to many organ systems require surgical, medical, nutritional, dent...

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Respiratory Disease Deaths Out West : The Link to Copd

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Deaths from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have climbed about 45% over the past 20 years, while death rates from the other four biggest killers in the country have dropped or held steady, according to the National Center for Health Statistics. People with COPD suffer from crippling airflow obstruction; a COPD diagnosis, which is evolving and likely is underreported, historically has included labels such as emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and asthmat...

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Truth in Numbers

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Along one wall of Joseph K. Hasemans office stands a floor-to-ceiling bookcase lined with identical powder blue books. These are Hasemans pride and joy: 500 technical reports representing rodent carcinogenicity assays conducted over the past 20 years for the National Toxicology Program (NTP). As director of statistical consulting for the NIEHS, Haseman is responsible for the statistical integrity of studies done for the NTP as well as other programs within the i...

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Susceptibility in Microbial Risk Assessment : Definitions and Rese...

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Workshop Design. Individuals from a variety of disciplines were invited to the 2-day workshop. Represented disciplines and areas of expertise included infectious disease epidemiology, clinical infectious disease, molecular genetics, microbiology, laboratory practice, statistical modeling, toxicologic risk assessment, immunology, pathology, and environmental health of underserved populations. Because of the complexity of the subject, the workshop structure used t...

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Ntp Studies : Focusing on the Future

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The NTP continuously solicits and reviews nominations for toxicological studies to be undertaken on substances of potential human health concern. Nominations are accepted from academia, federal and state regulatory and health agencies, industry, labor unions, environmental groups, and the general public. Substances are generally studied for reproductive and developmental toxicity, genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, metabolism and disposition, and carcinogenicity.

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Good Estrogen, Bad Estrogen Binding May Influence Effects

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Estrogen is a term used for a variety of natural and synthetic hormones that influence the growth and function of many tissues, particularly those of the male and female reproductive systems. Estrogen plays a role in several cancers, especially breast and endometrial cancers and possibly prostate and colon cancers. The human diet contains estrogenic compounds that can bind to estrogen receptors in the body, and much research has focused on whether dietary estrog...

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Environmental Health Perspectives

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Explorers have traditionally set out from familiar ports toward the unknown, creating maps of where they have been for others to follow. With time, these rough drawings are refined by those who come in their wake so that coastlines are charted, mountains measured, and rivers delineated to the mile. Today, scientists are grappling with a new map?that of the human genome?but unlike the one you can barely fold in your car, this map describes a landscape that remain...

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Innovations for Gene Technology

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The FlexJet? system, as the microarray product is known, was pioneered by the group of scientists who founded Rosetta Inpharmatics?Stephen Friend, Leland Hartwell, Leroy Hood, and Jasper Rine? along with Alan Blanchard, who heads Rosettas FlexJet technology development team. The system combines modern printing technology with DNA synthesis techniques to print tiny arrays of thousands of different gene sequences onto a single glass slide. An ?inkjet synthesizer? ...

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Arrays Cast Toxicology in a New Light

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Out on the San Diego beaches in January 2000, the breezes were warm and soft, but inside the Hilton Resort, at a special session of the American Association for Cancer Research conference on DNA repair defects, a storm was boiling.

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Chemicals in Breast Milk Little Data to Date

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Breast milk offers infants unparalleled nutrition to fuel their growth and development. It also provides a host of immune factors that can increase their resistance to common infections. Additionally, breast-fed infants may have a reduced risk of developing chronic diseases such as diabetes, allergies, and asthma. By breast-feeding her infant, a mother herself receives several health benefits, including less postpartum bleeding, a quicker return to prepregnancy ...

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