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Disarmament Documents (5,514 Books)


The United Nations International Disarmament Documents Collections are publications, documents, and reports is one of the most complete collections on international treaties, acts, and global assessment research reports ever assembled.

 
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Career Development and Training Opportunities

By: Dr. Carol Shreffler

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The NIEHS announces the availability of support for career development and training awards to increase the cadre of scientists working in areas of particular importance to the NIEHS. Mentored Patient-Oriented Research Career Development Award (K23) and Midcareer Investigator Award in Patient-Oriented Research (K24) These two awards support the career development of clinically trained investigators who are committed to focusing their research endeavors on patient...

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Perspectives Editorial the Right to Know Is for Everyone

By: Gary E.R. Hook

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The first issue of the revised Environmental Health Perspectives was published on Earth Day 1993. This April 2000 issue marks the seventh anniversary of the revised EHP and the first anniversary to fall in the new millennium. The overarching purpose of any journal should be to provide accurate and relevant information to its readership. This is especially important to environmental health, where the issues are often controversial and confusing, yet important to ...

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Cumulative Impact

By: Gregory C. Pratt

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The terms ?cumulative? and ?cumulative effects? are becoming more widely used in environmental impact assessment. The popularity of the concept is understandable as our culture comes to recognize that solitary insults to the environment considered in isolation cannot capture the full effect of the problems now before us. But what exactly do we mean by the term ?cumulative??.

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Innovative Technologies Chinese Fridges Keep Food and Planet Cool

By: Christopher G. Reuther

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: An international project aims to boost the manufacture and purchase of green refrigerators? not those 1970s-style avocadogreen fridges, but environmentally friendly refrigerators. According to the China State Statistical Bureau, over 12 million refrigerators will be manufactured for the Chinese market this year, and with them?at least, with traditional refrigerators? comes environmental pollution from greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting chemicals.

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Breathtaking Research Dangers in the Air We Brea

By: Mike May

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Although the air we breathe is necessary for life, certain factors may make this same air detrimental to our health. For instance, a seemingly endless list of compounds can be toxic at certain concentrations, and inhaling such compounds may lead to damage in different parts of the body. To investigate the particular effects of inhaled toxicants, the NIEHS developed the Respiratory Toxicology Group. The group, which consists of toxicologist Dan Morgan, biologist ...

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Focus Winds of Reducing Transboundary Air Pollutants

By: Christopher G. Reuther

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The acid rain in Lorraine comes partially from Spain. Similarly, about half the acid rain that falls on Canada originates in the United States, as does a large portion of the ground-level ozone found there. Air pollution never respects international boundaries, but in recent months a spate of meetings and agreements has shown international governments to be more willing than ever to try to limit the amount of their air pollution that drifts into other countries....

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Spheres of Influence Airing on the Side of Caution Or

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: In May 1999, a federal appeals court ruled that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) had violated the U.S. Constitution when it strengthened regulations for ground-level ozone and particulate matter (PM). EPA administrator Carol Browner called the decision ?one of the most bizarre and extreme decisions ever rendered? in environmental law and said that if it were allowed to stand, 1 million Americans would suffer serious respiratory illnesses and 15,000...

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The Trickle-Down Theory of Cleancer Air

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Relentlessly single-minded, microbes have tirelessly gone about the business of life since the earth first cooled, pretty much unremarked by humanity unless it is to be labeled for their sometimes negative effects on health. But as living organisms that display many of the same life processes as the larger, more visible denizens of the planet, microbes are increasingly being recognized for their value.

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Me and My Shadow Everyone Exposed to Methyleugenol

By: Julian Josephson

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Smoking-Induced Leukemia How Much Is Benzene to Blame? Benzene, known to cause leukemia, is present in cigarette smoke. However, although smokers are one-and-a-half to two times more likely to develop leukemia than nonsmokers, the degree to which the risk of leukemia can be attributed to the low doses of benzene in cigarette smoke is uncertain. Also uncertain is the validity of linear models of dose?response with respect to benzene and leukemia, particularly at ...

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Scientific Issues in Relation to Lakewide Management Plans : Linki...

By: Michael Gilbertson

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Environmental health researchers and administrators around the world look to the successful work on the Great Lakes as an example of what can be done when national governments intervene to implement programs to control pollution, particularly by persistent toxic substances. In terms of the science, the investigations into the effects on human health from consumption of contaminated Great Lakes fish have warned of the necessity for public health interventions. Th...

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The Genomic Era : A Crucial Role for the Public Health Sciences

By: Gilbert S. Omenn

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: With the publication of the complete genomes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (1), the worm Caenorhabditis elegans (2), and the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster (3) and the expected completion of a substantially complete human genome sequence (4), scientists everywhere can turn their attention to understanding the significance of genetic variation within our species and across species. The NIEHS anticipated this period with the initiation in 1998 of the Env...

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Endocrine Disruption : Lessons Learned

By: John Ashby

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Schwetzs editorial, ?Responding to Environmental Issues: Lessons Learned? (1), was stimulating and raised many pertinent points concerning the current interface of politics with the scientific process. I would like to discuss two issues raised by Schwetz. First, Schwetz (1) noted that effort should have been expended over the past few years to build a database with which to evaluate how endocrine-disrupting (ED) agents may cause adverse effects in animals and hu...

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Remediation Radio-Free Bacteria

By: John Muir

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: In 1956 a food technologist at Oregon State University made a startling discovery: cans of meat that had supposedly been sterilized with gamma radiation contained a thriving organism, subsequently named Deinococcus radiodurans. D. radiodurans has been shown to survive and continue to function after being exposed to radiation doses up to 10 times those that would kill most bacteria. In addition, it is able to survive nutrient-poor environments, including weathere...

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Lights, Chemicals, Action at New Lab for Phototoxicology

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: In the delta of southeastern Arkansas, at the National Center for Toxicological Research in Jefferson, two large laboratory rooms are bright with sunlight?not the kind that streams in through windows, but simulated solar energy from tiny lamps using an electromagnetic radiation source that closely mimics the spectrum of sunlight.

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Trampling Paradise

By: David J. Tenenbaum

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Its a small world after all. At least, thats what the millions of tourists who take to the skies, roads, and paths each year to discover it are finding. Advances in technology and transportation and the emergence of a global economy are providing greater access for unprecedented numbers of travelers to explore the once-remote world around them.

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Spheres of Influence

By: Richard Dahl

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: A similar movement has occurred among high-tech industries such as computer and electronics manufacturing, which may produce environmental hazards that are less well-recognized but just as toxic. Semiconductor manufacturing in particular, French says, is a ?toxic-laden business? that has largely been exported to such places as the Philippines, where exports of electronics equipment?nearly 80% of it from semiconductors? increased from $1 billion in 1985 to $10 billion in 1996.

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Arsenic in Asia Water at Its Worst

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Arsenic contamination of drinking water is a global problem, but nowhere is the problem more severe than in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India, where over 112 million reside in areas where groundwater concentrations exceed the World Health Organizations (WHO) maximum permissible level of 50 micrograms per liter (micrograms/L) and its lower recommended concentration of 10 micrograms/L. Arsenic exposure is associated with health effects such as skin lesions and lun...

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Research Areas of Special Emphasis

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Within the wide spectrum of research supported by the NIEHS, the research areas listed below have been identified by the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council as topics of special interest to forwarding the research programs of the institute. The complete list and descriptions of these topics can be found on the DERT Web page.

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Niehs K12 Program

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Because of the publics desire to understand the effects of and risks to human health from exposure to physical and chemical agents, there is a critical need to develop a mechanism for educating people about environmental health science issues. To address this need, the NIEHS initiated an education program for children in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K?12) that will enhance the dissemination, utilization, and effective implementation of materials and curri...

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Children's Health : A Mixed Review

By: Kenneth Olden, Ph. D.

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Children are our most precious resource, so it is critical that they have the opportunity to develop into healthy and productive citizens. We can be proud of the fact that the health and safety of children is better than at any time in recorded history. Yet, the report card on the well-being of our children is a mixture of success and failure. The infant mortality rate is at a record low, but is still higher than in many countries. Academic achievement is up, bu...

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