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Disarmament Documents (5,514 Books)


The United Nations International Disarmament Documents Collections are publications, documents, and reports is one of the most complete collections on international treaties, acts, and global assessment research reports ever assembled.

 
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Agriculture and Farming a Less Polluting Pig

By: Albert Szent-Gyorgyi

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Theres good news in the fight against farm pollution, say researchers in the Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics at the University of Guelph in Ontario, Canada. In August, John Phillips, Cecil Forsberg, and Serguei Golovan announced a new kind of pig that makes better use of phosphorus, a nutrient that in high concentrations can deplete oxygen levels in waters downstream. Phosphorus runoff from livestock farms has been blamed for killing aquatic life an...

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Working for Womens Health

By: Susan M. Booker

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Womens health is an area that is gaining increasing attention with the realization that mens and womens bodies don?t just look different?they also react differently to environmental agents. Barbara J. Davis, head of the Female Reproductive Pathology Group and now acting chief of the newly created Laboratory of Womens Health, is leading womens health studies at the NIEHS. Over the course of her 10 years at the institute, Davis has concentrated her efforts on stud...

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Mycotoxins

By: Julia R. Barrett

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: From the beginning of organized crop production through present-day agriculture, mycotoxins?toxic metabolites produced by fungi?have presented health risks to both human and animal populations. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by certain molds that infect food crops in the field and during storage. Depending on the quantities produced and consumed, mycotoxins can cause acute or chronic toxicity in the animals and humans who eat contaminated crops or...

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Human Exposure Assessment

By: Kenneth Olden, Ph. D.

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: As the number of people dying worldwide from noncommunicable diseases such as cancer and heart disease continues to rise, being able to measure and qualify peoples exposure to harmful environmental agents is becoming increasingly important. Exposure assessment is emerging as a scientific field thanks in large part to revolutionary advances in genetics, molecular biology, and microenvironmental and personal measurement technology. ?As the methods of exposure asse...

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Improving the Innovations Asthma Arsenal

By: Christopher G. Reuther

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Anew method for depositing nanometer- thin coatings onto tiny particles could be used for a wide range of industrial applications, including making safer and more convenient asthma drugs, say the scientists who developed it. Colleagues Rajiv Singh, a professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Florida in Gainesville; Guenther Hochhaus and James Talton, an associate professor and postdoctoral associate, respectively, in t...

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Sins of the Father Parental Smoking and Childhood Cancer

By: John S. Manuel

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Exposure to passive (or environmental) tobacco smoke has been implicated in numerous childhood ailments ranging from low birth weight to middle ear disease. Passive smoke has also been suspected, but not proven, to increase the risk of childhood cancer. Clarifying this issue is crucial not only for the protection of children?s health but also for the fashioning of policy concerning smoking in public and private facilities. In this months issue, Paolo Boffetta an...

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Environmental Genome Project Develops a New Bioinformatics Tool

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The NIEHS Environmental Genome Project is founded on the sound scientific concept that an individuals genetic makeup is a major factor in human disease resulting from exposure to environmental agents. The project is a long-term effort to characterize specific genetic variations, or polymorphisms, that contribute to either resistance or susceptibility to environmentally induced diseases.

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Exposure to Phthalate Esters

By: Raymond M. David

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The American Chemistry Council Phthalate Esters Panel read with great interest the paper by Blount et al. (1) regarding urinary levels of phthalate ester metabolites in a sample set of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) population. We have known for some time of this research, and have provided whatever information and assistance we could to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

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The New Genetics and Mammalian Cloning in Environmental Health Res...

By: Philip M. Iannaccone

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Recent advances in genetic technology have spurred a mini-revolution in the study of toxicology. Toxicologic studies are a national imperative, and the importance of the application of transgenic mice and knock-out technologies to these studies is widely recognized. For example, the use of Tg.AC transgenic mice, carrying an inducible v-H-ras gene, and p53+/-mice speeds the outcomes of the traditional 2-year bioassay of chemicals nominated for study (1?8). Mechan...

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Water Pollution Drugged Drinking Water

By: Carol Potera

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Drugs and personal care products that are excreted from or washed off the body naturally end up in the sewage that flows into sewer systems and septic tanks, but where do they go from there? Scientists are beginning to monitor the extent of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in the aquatic environment and their consequences. What theyre finding is that, through leaching from septic tanks and escaping intact through sewage treatment processes, some...

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Reaching Out to New York Neighborhoods

By: Luz Claudio

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: As a means of accomplishing its mission of studying how environmental agents affect human health, the NIEHS sponsors a program of center core grants designed to support centralized resources and facilities shared by investigators with existing research grants. The purpose of these center grants is to promote a multidisciplinary approach to environmental health sciences, bringing together scientists from a variety of fields to address environmental health problem...

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Breaching the Placenta Fast Fetal Absorption of a Common Compound

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Most maternally administered chemicals have the potential to cross the placental barrier, and the question is not whether a chemical crosses the placenta, but the rate at which it does so. In this issue, Osamu Takahashi and Shinshi Oishi of the Tokyo Metropolitan Research Laboratory of Public Health present their findings that the placenta fails to act as a barrier to a potentially toxic compound, 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane, also known as bisphenol A or BPA...

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Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 108, No. 11, November 2000...

By: Valerie J. Brown

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Valerie J. Browns article (1) delivers further evidence that the United States is very far from Central Europe. The Balkans, as it is taught even in elementary schools in Europe, is a well-defined geographic area, including Romania, Bulgaria, the former Yugoslav Republics, Albania, and Greece. Its northern boundary is the Carpathian Mountains. Sometimes Turkey is also included because of its close political connections to the region. From historical aspects, the...

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A Challenge for the New Millennium : Eliminating Health Disparitie...

By: James G. Townsel

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The new millennium was ushered in by the release of two documents that stand to have dramatic impact on the scientific research and training agenda in the United States. The first is the U.S. Surgeon Generals Report Healthy People 2010 (1), and the second is a report released by the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) titled Ensuring a Strong U.S. Scientific, Technical, and Engineering Workforce in the 21st Century (2). The two overarching goals of He...

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Biomedical Information Science and Technology Initiatives

By: William A. Suk

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Biomedical research is generating increasingly complex and voluminous amounts of information. For example, neurobiologists can now record electrical activity from hundreds to thousands of neurons simultaneously. There is a corresponding need for the hardware and software required to manipulate, store, and analyze data. Medical geneticists are running analyses from large numbers of subjects against information obtained from the Human Genome Project to map disease...

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Hazardous Waste Questioning Coal Ash Deregulation

By: David J. Tenenbaum

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Each year, 115 million tons of coal combustion products (CCPs) are produced in the United States, 90% of them by electric utilities. CCPs are mainly ash, usually mixed with wastes from pollution control scrubbers (consisting of particulate matter and neutralizing lime), coal piles, and other sources. In 1993, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) exempted pure coal ash from Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), which regulates...

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Let's Work Together : Connecting Research and the Community

By: Rebecca Clay

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The ?mountains? in northeastern Oklahoma were ideal for four-wheeling in the summer and sledding in the winter, and people came from miles around to enjoy such recreation. But there was one problem with those mountains: they were actually enormous piles of mine tailings containing lead, zinc, and other heavy metals. Although mining had ceased in the 1970s, its by-products were everywhere?the tailings had long been used as road-building material, foundations for ...

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Smoke-Filled Rooms Ets Causes Menstrual Pain

By: James R. Campbell

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Studies show that women who smoke are twice as likely to experience dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation) as nonsmokers, and smoking prolongs the symptoms of this condition. Fewer data are available on whether secondhand exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home or work also raises the risk for dysmenorrhea in nonsmoking women. In this issue, a team of environmental researchers headed by epidemiologist Changzhong Chen of the Harvard School of Public He...

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Meta-Analyses of Tce Carcinogenicity

By: Jonathan Borak

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: We read with interest the recent report by Wartenberg et al. (1) in which they described an ?ad hoc system? and ?meta-analysis?type approach? for evaluating the carcinogenicity of trichloroethylene (TCE). In particular, we are concerned that their methods may obscure rather than clarify the relationship between TCE and human cancer.

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Pest Management Bugged by Automatic Sprayers

By: Harvey Black

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Automatic insecticide dispensers are designed to keep restaurants, schools, and other public settings free from annoying and unsanitary flying insects. They may also do something else: sicken at least some of the people who are exposed to the insecticides that are sprayed.

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