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Disarmament Documents (5,514 Books)


The United Nations International Disarmament Documents Collections are publications, documents, and reports is one of the most complete collections on international treaties, acts, and global assessment research reports ever assembled.

 
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Climate, Traffic-Related Air Pollutants, And Asthma Prevalence in ...

By: Yueliang Leon Guo

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: In this investigation, we compared asthma prevalence data from a nationwide survey of middle-school students with air pollutant and climatic data from 55 monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (EPA; Taipei, Taiwan) to assess the effects of air pollutants on asthma.

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Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 107, No. 11, November 1999...

By: Paul Mak

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The conversion of androgens to estrogens is catalyzed by the enzyme aromatase, which belongs to the cytochrome P450 superfamily. Aromatase plays an important role in the expression of secondary sexual characteristics, maintenance of pregnancy, and brain sex differentiation (1). Furthermore, the enzyme has received considerable attention in breast cancer development because high expression of the enzyme activity has been associated with a significant number of br...

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Sexual Behavior in Japanese Quail as a Test End Point for Endocrin...

By: Krister Halldin

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The hypothesis that environmental contaminants can disrupt endocrine function in wildlife and in humans has attracted much attention during recent years. Numerous experimental studies have shown that reproduction may be at risk from chemicals discharged into the environment (1?8). Moreover, studies in wild species belonging to various animal classes have suggested that reproductive impairment may be caused by environmental contaminants (9?12). Reproductive effec...

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Cadmium, Mercury, And Lead in Kidney Cortex of the General Swedish...

By: Lars Barregard

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Cadmium, mercury, and lead concentrations were determined in deep-frozen kidney cortex biopsies taken from 36 living, healthy Swedish kidney donors (18 males and 18 females), who were 30?71 (mean 53) years of age. Information about occupation, smoking, the presence of dental amalgam, and fish consumption could be obtained for 27 of the donors. The samples (median dry weight 0.74 mg) were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and the result...

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Pm10 Exposure, Gaseous Pollutants, And Daily Mortality in Inchon, ...

By: Yun-Chul Hong

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: To evaluate the relative importance of various measures of particulate and gaseous air pollution as predictors of daily mortality in Inchon, South Korea, the association between total daily mortality and air pollution was investigated for a 20-month period (January 1995 through August 1996). Poisson regression was used to regress daily death counts on each air pollutant, controlling for time trends, season, and meteorologic influences such as temperature and rel...

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Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Methylmercury Act Synergistically to...

By: Jeffrey C. Bemis

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Consumption of contaminated Great Lakes fish by pregnant women is associated with decreased birth weight and deficits in cognitive function in their infants and children. These fish contain many known and suspected anthropogenic neurotoxicants, making it difficult to determine which contaminant(s) are responsible for the observed deficits. We have undertaken a series of experiments to determine the relevant toxicants by comparing the neurotoxic effects of two of...

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Expression of the Constitutive and Inducible Forms of Heat Shock P...

By: Seema Somji

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: We determined the expression of the constitutive (hsc 70) and inducible (hsp 70) forms of heat shock protein 70 mRNA and protein in human proximal tubule (HPT) cells exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of Cd+2 under both acute and extended conditions of exposure. The HPT cells exhibited the classic heat shock response when subjected to a physical (heat) or chemical stress (sodium arsenite); hsc 70 mRNA and protein levels were constant or slightly incr...

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Cord Serum Immunoglobulin E Related to the Environmental Contamina...

By: Eva Reichrtova

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Allergic diseases are on the rise in both prevalence and severity, especially in industrialized countries. The process of allergic sensitization needs an understanding of the role environmental factors play in its development. In addition to traditionally considered air pollutants, various persistent organochlorine pollutants, which accumulate in the human body over a lifetime via food intake, are toxic in humans. Placental contamination by chemicals may act as ...

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Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Photophasic Circulating Melat...

By: Kimberly Jan Fernie

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Birds reproduce within electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from transmission lines. Melatonin influences physiologic and behavioral processes that are critical to survival, and melatonin has been equivocally suppressed by EMFs in mammalian species. We examined whether EMFs affect photophasic plasma melatonin in reproducing adult and fledgling American kestrels (Falco sparverius), and whether melatonin was correlated with body mass to explain previously reported result...

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Intercomparison of Retrospective Radon Detectors

By: R. William Field

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Studies that fail to consider temporal radon gas and progeny variation will also have higher exposure misclassification. Residential radon gas and progeny concentrations vary hourly, diurnally, monthly, seasonally, and annually. These variations are influenced by numerous factors including radon infiltration rates, heating and air conditioning system design and usage, pressure differentials, soil characteristics, house construction methods and materials, water u...

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Temperature and Air Pollution as Risk Factors for Heat Stroke in T...

By: Warren T. Piver

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Heat stroke is associated with prolonged exposures to high air temperatures that usually occur in the summer months of July and August in Tokyo, Japan. Also during July and August, residents of Tokyo are often exposed simultaneously to high concentrations of air pollutants. To assess the impacts of these combined exposures, daily numbers of heat stroke emergency transport cases/million residents for Tokyo were stratified by gender and three groups: 0?14, 15?64, ...

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Follow-Up Screening of Lead-Poisoned Children Near an Auto Battery...

By: Balkrishena Kaul

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: In August 1997 we performed a follow-up survey of 146 lead-poisoned children from a community near a previously active auto battery recycling smelter in Haina near Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Our follow-up survey confirmed a severe incidence of elevated blood lead (BPb) and erythrocyte protoporphyrin/zinc protoporphyrin (EP-ZnPP) levels. The mean BPb level was 32 micrograms/dL and the mean EP-ZnPP level was 128 micrograms/dL. The frequency distribution of...

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Short-Term Effect of Ozone on the Pulmonary Function of Children i...

By: Pau-Chung Chen

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The objective of this study was to evaluate the short-term effect of ambient air pollution on the pulmonary function of schoolchildren. We sampled 941 children in primary school in three communities in Taiwan (Sanchun, Taihsi, and Linyuan). The nearby stations of the Taiwan air quality monitoring network provided the hourly ambient concentrations of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, particulate matter ? 10 micrometer in aerodynamic diameter, and nitrogen d...

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Infant Pulmonary Hemorrhage in a Suburban Home with Water Damage a...

By: Susan M. Flappan

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Other laboratory test results showed an elevated white blood cell count (30,400/m3) with no left shift, a decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit (10.1 g/dL and 29.3, respectively); an elevated prothrombin time (17.7 sec; normal 10?14.3 sec); and an elevated platelet count of 457,000/dL. Bacterial cultures collected from the blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and tracheal aspirate were all negative. This made a diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation due...

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The Sources, Fate, And Toxicity of Chemical Warfare Agent Degradat...

By: Nancy B. Munro

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: We include in this review an assessment of the formation, environmental fate, and mammalian and ecotoxicity of CW agent degradation products relevant to environmental and occupational health. These parent CW agents include several vesicants: sulfur mustards [undistilled sulfur mustard (H), sulfur mustard (HD), and an HD/agent T mixture (HT)]; nitrogen mustards [ethylbis(2- chloroethyl)amine (HN1), methylbis(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN2), tris(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN...

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Biological Warfare Agents as Threats to Potable Water

By: W. Dickinson Burrows

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Nearly all known biological warfare agents are intended for aerosol application. Although less effective as potable water threats, many are potentially capable of inflicting heavy casualties when ingested. Significant loss of mission capability can be anticipated even when complete recovery is possible. Properly maintained field army water purification equipment can counter this threat, but personnel responsible for the operation and maintenance of the equipment...

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Hazards of Chemical Weapons Release during War : New Perspectives

By: Sharon Reutter

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The two major threat classes of chemical weapons are mustard gas and the nerve agents, and this has not changed in over 50 years. Both types are commonly called gases, but they are actually liquids that are not remarkably volatile. These agents were designed specifically to harm people by any route of exposure and to be effective at low doses. Mustard gas was used in World War I, and the nerve agents were developed shortly before, during, and after World War II....

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Association of Prenatal Maternal or Postnatal Child Environmental ...

By: Brenda Eskenazi

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: We review the potential neurodevelopmental and behavioral effects of children?s prenatal and/or postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Children?s exposure to ETS has been assessed in epidemiologic studies as a risk factor for a variety of behavioral and neurodevelopmental problems including reduced general intellectual ability, skills in language and auditory tasks, and academic achievement, and behavioral problems such as hyperactivity and dec...

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Centers Needed to Study Women's Environmental Health

By: Maureen C. Hatch

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The view of women as primarily fecund beings goes back to prehistory, where it is expressed in the well-known series of Venuses? stone figures of women with enlarged breasts, who are often represented as pregnant. Although the Venus figures date from the late Paleolithic era, this view of women did not change much in the next 20,000 years. With the approaching millennium, however, the field of health research has begun to consider women apart from their children...

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Coarse Particles and Dust Storm Mortality

By: David T. Mage

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Dust Storms: Schwartzs Response In response to our paper reporting no excess risk of death in Spokane following dust storms when compared to appropriately chosen controls (1), Mage cites an article from the 1930s that anecdotally reports high rates of respiratory illness during the dust bowl period in the Midwest. This period, which coincided with the Great Depression, was a period of extreme social and economic stress. Since our paper was published, a reanalysi...

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