World Library  



Probability Distribution (256 Books)


In probability theory and statistics, a probability distribution identifies either the probability of each value of a random variable (when the variable is discrete), or the probability of the value falling within a particular interval (when the variable is continuous). The probability distribution describes the range of possible values that a random variable can attain and the probability that the value of the random variable is within any (measurable) subset of that range.

 
  • Cover Image

Modification of Immune Function through Exposure to Dietary Aflato...

By: Paul C. Turner

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Aflatoxins are immunotoxins that frequently contaminate staple foods in The Gambia and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa, resulting in high exposure throughout life. Impaired infant immune system development may be a key predictor of mortality from infectious disease. In this study we aimed to determine the effect of dietary aflatoxin exposure on a number of immune parameters in Gambian children. A cohort of 472 Gambian children 6?9 years of age was recruited. S...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Modification of Immune Function through Exposure to Dietary Aflato...

By: Paul C. Turner

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Aflatoxins are immunotoxins that frequently contaminate staple foods in The Gambia and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa, resulting in high exposure throughout life. Impaired infant immune system development may be a key predictor of mortality from infectious disease. In this study we aimed to determine the effect of dietary aflatoxin exposure on a number of immune parameters in Gambian children. A cohort of 472 Gambian children 6?9 years of age was recruited. S...

Read More
  • Cover Image

A Study of Urban Housing Demolitions as Sources of Lead in Ambient...

By: Mark R. Farfel

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Demolition of older housing for urban redevelopment purposes benefits communities by removing housing with lead paint and dust hazards and by creating spaces for lead paint?free housing and other community resources. This study was conducted to assess changes, if any, in ambient dust lead levels associated with demolition of blocks of older lead-containing row houses in Baltimore, Maryland (USA). In this article we present results based on dust-fall samples coll...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Organochlorines, Lead, And Mercury in Akwesasne Mohawk Youth

By: Lawrence M. Schell

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Most humans have detectable body burdens of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and p,p-dichlorophenyldichloroethylene (p,p-DDE), a metabolite of p,p-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Native American communities may be at increased risk of exposure through subsistence-based diets and greater physical contact with contaminated soil and water. In this article we describe the levels of toxicants (PCBs, p,p-DDE, HCB, mirex, lead, and merc...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Distribution and Determinants of Mouse Allergen Exposure in Low-In...

By: Ginger L. Chew

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Previous studies of mouse allergens and laboratory-animal-worker?related allergy and asthma suggest that quantifying mouse allergen levels in homes could augment our understanding of inner city asthma. We hypothesized that levels of mouse allergen in inner-city homes would be related to certain household characteristics. Dust samples were collected from the kitchens and beds of 221 mothers enrolled in a prospective birth cohort study, 92 of African American and ...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Glyphosate Biomonitoring for Farmers and Their Families : Results ...

By: John F. Acquavella

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Glyphosate is the active ingredient in Roundup agricultural herbicides and other herbicide formulations that are widely used for agricultural, forestry, and residential weed control. As part of the Farm Family Exposure Study, we evaluated urinary glyphosate concentrations for 48 farmers, their spouses, and their 79 children (4?18 years of age). We evaluated 24-hr composite urine samples for each family member the day before, the day of, and for 3 days after a gl...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Blood Lead Secular Trend in a Cohort of Children in Mexico City (1...

By: Lourdes Schnaas

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: We determined the secular trend in blood lead levels in a cohort of 321 children born in Mexico City between 1987 and 1992. Blood lead level was measured every 6 months during a 10-year period. We modeled the effect of yearly air lead concentration nested within the calendar year in which the child was born, family use of lead-glazed pottery, socioeconomic status, year in which the child was born, age of the child at the time of blood lead measurement, place of ...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Cognitive Abilities Am...

By: Kimberly Yolton

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: We used the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), conducted from 1988 to 1994, to investigate the relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and cognitive abilities among U.S. children and adolescents 6?16 years of age. Serum cotinine was used as a biomarker of ETS exposure. Children were included in the sample if their serum cotinine levels were ? 15 ng/mL, a level consistent with ETS exposure, and if they den...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Urinary Concentrations of Bisphenol a and 4-Nonylphenol in a Human...

By: Antonia M. Calafat

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Bisphenol A (BPA) is used to manufacture polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins, which are used in baby bottles, as protective coatings on food containers, and for composites and sealants in dentistry. 4-Nonylphenol (NP) is used to make nonylphenol ethoxylates, nonionic surfactants applied as emulsifying, wetting, dispersing, or stabilizing agents in industrial, agricultural, and domestic consumer products. The potential for human exposure to BPA and NP is high ...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Air Pollution and Lymphocyte Phenotype Proportions in Cord Blood

By: Kent E. Pinkerton

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Effects of air pollution on morbidity and mortality may be mediated by alterations in immune competence. In this study we examined short-term associations of air pollution exposures with lymphocyte immunophenotypes in cord blood among 1,397 deliveries in two districts of the Czech Republic. We measured fine particulate matter < 2.5 micrometer in diameter (PM2.5) and 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 24-hr samples collected by versatile air pollution ...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Low-Level Environmental Lead Exposure and Children's Intellectual ...

By: Bruce P. Lanphear

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Lead is a confirmed neurotoxin, but questions remain about lead-associated intellectual deficits at blood lead levels < 10 micrograms/dL and whether lower exposures are, for a given change in exposure, associated with greater deficits. The objective of this study was to examine the association of intelligence test scores and blood lead concentration, especially for children who had maximal measured blood lead levels < 10 micrograms/dL. We examined data collected...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Aflatoxin Contamination of Commercial Maize Products during an Out...

By: Lauren Lewis

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: In April 2004, one of the largest aflatoxicosis outbreaks occurred in rural Kenya, resulting in 317 cases and 125 deaths. Aflatoxin-contaminated homegrown maize was the source of the outbreak, but the extent of regional contamination and status of maize in commercial markets (market maize) were unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess the extent of market maize contamination and evaluate the relationship between market maize aflatoxin and the afl...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Evaluation of Exposure to Arsenic in Residential Soil

By: Joyce S. Tsuji

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: In response to concerns regarding arsenic in soil from a pesticide manufacturing plant, we conducted a biomonitoring study on children younger than 7 years of age, the age category of children most exposed to soil. Urine samples from 77 children (47% participation rate) were analyzed for total arsenic and arsenic species related to ingestion of inorganic arsenic. Older individuals also provided urine (n = 362) and toenail (n = 67) samples. Speciated urinary arse...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Occupational Toluene Exposure Induces Cytochrome P450 2E1 Mrna Exp...

By: Ania Mendoza Cantu

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Print workers are exposed to organic solvents, of which the systemic toxicant toluene is a main component. Toluene induces expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), an enzyme involved in its own metabolism and that of other protoxicants, including some procarcinogens. Therefore, we investigated the association between toluene exposure and the CYP2E1 response, as assessed by mRNA content in peripheral lymphocytes or the 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone (6OH-CHZ)/chlorzox...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Casecontrol Study of an Acute Aflatoxicosis Outbreak, Kenya, 2004

By: Patricia A. Enneking

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: OBJECTIVES: During January?June 2004, an aflatoxicosis outbreak in eastern Kenya resulted in 317 cases and 125 deaths. We conducted a case?control study to identify risk factors for contamination of implicated maize and, for the first time, quantitated biomarkers associated with acute aflatoxicosis. DESIGN: We administered questionnaires regarding maize storage and consumption and obtained maize and blood samples from participants. PARTICIPANTS: We recruited 40 ...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Reduced Intellectual Development in Children with Prenatal Lead Ex...

By: Lourdes Schnaas

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: OBJECTIVE: Low-level postnatal lead exposure is associated with poor intellectual development in children, although effects of prenatal exposure are less well studied. We hypothesized that prenatal lead exposure would have a more powerful and lasting impact on child development than postnatal exposure. DESIGN: We used generalized linear mixed models with random intercept and slope to analyze the pattern of lead effect of the cohort from pregnancy through 10 year...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Chapter 11 Squid Life-History Strategies

By: R. K. Odor

Nutrition Reference Publication

Introduction: In their review Fogarty et al. (1991) concluded that ?Recruitment variability is inextricably linked with the life-history strategy of many exploited marine fish and invertebrate populations.? In a subsequent exchange, Mullen (1992) argued that ?forecasting recruitment is not essential for management?, and Fogarty (1992) concurred that the storage mechanisms (Chesson 1984) provided by delayed maturation and iteroparity did ensure population stability of mos...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 1974; Volume 51; Volum...

By: M.K. Mukherjee

Medical Reference Publication

Seroconversion for A/England/42/72 (H3N2) virus occurred in a child in Calcutta in August 1971, one month ajier the virus was first isolated in India. During the following 5 months a small increase was observed in the geometric mean titres (GMT). In mid-1972 the virus was in Kathmandu, Nepal, where the children had a higher GMT than the adults. The GMT increased sharply during 1972 and early 1973 and this increase was accompanied by an increased number of hospital admiss...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 2004; Volume 82, Numbe...

By: William D. Savedoff

Medical Reference Publication

Enrlier studies on the antibody response to inactivated influenza vaccines injected by different routes have given contradictory results, some suggesting that 0.1 ml intradermally i . ~su prrior to 1.0 ml subcutaneously, others suggesting the opposite. With the advent of the 1968-69 Hong Kong influenza epidemic it seemed worth while to re-evaluate whether a snraller intraderma1 dose would elicit antibody responres comparable to those following a larger sr~bbcutaneousd os...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 2004; Volume 82, Numbe...

By: Mike English

Medical Reference Publication

The term osteoporosis was mentioned over 170 years ago, by a French scientist, to describe porous bones. Osteoporosis is currently known as a systemic skeletal disorder that affects bone density and quality, leading to bone fragility and increased risk of fractures. It is defined as having a T-score of less than -2.5. The T-score is the number of standard deviations separating an individual bone mineral density from the peak bone mineral density of young adults. Osteopen...

Read More
 
9
|
10
|
11
|
12
|
13
Records: 201 - 220 of 256 - Pages: 



Copyright © World Public Library. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Public Library are sponsored by the World Public Library Association,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.