Socioeconomics or socio-economics is the study of the relationship between economic activity and social life. The field is often considered multidisciplinary, using theories and methods from sociology, economics, history, psychology, and many others.
Government Reference Publication
Excerpt: The last century of human history has been characterized by an unprecedented geometrical growth of knowledge of the physical, chemical and biological sciences. This knowledge. combined with the technology of the continuing industrial revolution, has given us a remarkably increased ability to control infections, infestations, and to some degree malnutrition and famines. This has resulted in a significantly longer life expectancy and, since human fertility has not...
Nutrition Reference Publication
Excerpt: Over the past twenty years, there has been growing public awareness of environmental and social issues in agricultural production and trade. Consumers? concerns have given rise to a number of standard setting, certification and/or labelling initiatives, some led by NGOs and others led by the business sector. Social and environmental certification and labelling use market incentives to encourage management improvements above the minimum level required by law, to ...
Excerpt: As urbanized areas continue to expand and enlarge, exposure to disasters grows. The magnitude of catastrophic and chronic effects of disasters is ever-increasing. This book outlines the theoretical basis for understanding urban vulnerability to natural disaster and then presents three case studies from Barbados, Guyana and the Dominican Republic. The case studies explore the role of social capital, social cohesiveness and government and community involvement in ...
Excerpt: Does better nutritional status contribute to faster economic growth? If it does, what is the magnitude and persistence of this effect? These two questions are the paramount issues of this project. If indeed the answer is yes and the effect is appreciable, then food aid to those lowincome food-deficit countries (LIFDCs) and least developing countries (LDCs) will not only improve the human welfare in the regions but also enhance economic growth so that they can ev...
Excerpt: India is in a phase of rapid economic and demographic transition. Per capita income has been rising steadily since the 1980s. Life expectancy is increasing and birth rates are falling. The impressive growth rates of the 1980s were maintained in the last decade with reforms to open up the Indian economy. Poverty levels continue to decline as does the incidence of malnutrition and stunting. A key feature of this remarkable period of growth has been the change in t...
Excerpt: The population of the Republic of Maldives was 2X2 000 persons in 19911 (FAO. SIDS 1(99) of which 48.8 percent were women (ESCAP 19991. At 2.X percen t in 19?!5 ... 199l!, the Maldives has one of me highest population growth rates among developing countries in the Asi a-Pacific region. The population is young: almost half of the population is under 15 yea rs; 52.5 percent is in the working age group (15-M years} and just ].5 percent is 65 years or older. Life ex...
Excerpt: The population of the Republic of Maldives was 282 000 persons in 1998 (FAO, SIDS 1999) of which 48.8 percent were women (ESCAP 1999). At 2.8 percent in 1995-1998, the Maldives has one of the highest population growth rates among developing countries in the Asia-Pacific region. The population is young: almost half of the population is under 15 years; 52.5 percent is in the working age group (15-64 years) and just 3.5 percent is 65 years or older. Life expectancy...
Excerpt: Malaysia, with a land area of 336 745 km2, consists of Peninsular Malaysia and of Sarawak and Sabah on the island of Borneo (Chee and Peng). Malaysia?s population of 23 001 000 is projected to reach 31 580 000 by 2020, although the rate of population growth is declining from 2.44 percent in 1995 to a projected 1.66 in 2005. Likewise, the fertility rate that was 3.26 children per woman in 1995 is falling to a projected 2.62 in 2005. Women are 49 percent of the po...
Excerpt: Nepal is one of the world?s least developed nations, with low per capita income (US$249), and generally low socio-economic indicators. Infant mortality, at 64 per 1 000 live births, is the highest such figure in South Asia. Indicators of life expectancy at birth, adult literacy and nutrition are among the lowest in the world. Its human development index value of 0.499 ranks Nepal 143rd among 175 countries worldwide. Poverty and food insecurity are rife and these...
Introduction: The Dominican Republic is a small island developing country, that has experienced substantial transformation of its economic structure, as reflected by a declining participation of the agricultural sector in the generation of income, employment and foreign exchange. As part of this transformation, real per capita income was tripled during the last half of the past century, population growth was reduced from an annual rate of 3% during the period 1950-70 to ...
Introduction: Latin American countries have had important demographic, epidemiological and nutritional changes in the last decades. The demographic transition has occurred through a sustained decrease in fecundity, an increase in life expectancy and changes in the age structure of the population. The demographic changes have modified the epidemiological profile of the population. Specifically, the prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases has been increasing. Nutri...
Summary: The Gross National Product (GNP) in Namibia accounted for 2,210 US$ in 1997, well above average GNP in Sub-Saharan-Africa (480) and Lower-middle income countries (1,710). However, Namibia?s income distribution is one of the most unequal in the world. In 1996 AIDS overtook tuberculosis as the main killer disease. There were 1,539 registered deaths from AIDS in 1998, compared with 847 from TB and 723 from malaria, which is endemic in the north. The epidemic has dr...
Medical Reference Publication
Mozambique's protracted war, which ended relatively
recently, created several million internally
displaced persons and brought about the destruction
of about half the country's schools and health units.
About 70% of the population of some 17 million live
in rural areas and suffer extreme poverty. The infant
mortality rate is approximately 150 per 1000 live
births, and life expectancy at birth is around 49 years.
There are only about 400 doctors, or one per 45 000
Inequalities in health, both between and within
populations, are a major public concern that demands
attention. For example, life expectancy at birth of
native American males in some counties of the USA
is 56 years, while that of Asian American women in
other counties is above 95 years (1). The longstanding
interest in health-related inequalities (2) has
increased since the early 1980s and includes health
differences between social groups (3±6). Interest in
Close to three decades have been added
to life expectancy at birth worldwide since
the turn of the century. There are currently
about 580 million people in the world aged 60
years and over, and this figure is expected to
rise to over 1000 million within the next 20
years Ða 75% increase in that age group
compared to a less than 50% increase in the
world' s population as a whole. By 2020
approximately 70% of the elderly population
will be living in developing countries. T...
Bangladesh, one of the most populous and poorest countries
in the world (where 29% of the population lives on less than
US$ 1.00 a day) (1), is undergoing a demographic transition
as a result of the success of targeted public health interventions,
such as immunization, family planning and oral rehydration
therapy. In the three decades since the nation’s independence
in 1971, life expectancy at birth increased from 45 years to 62
years due to a gradual reduct...
Whle life expectancy has slowly but steadily increased
over the years. bolh it and the mortality rate
are not adequate indicators of the real health status
oi populations. For instance, the presence of chronlc
diseases and chronic condit~ons (e.g.. after accidents
or as a result of genetic abnormalities) has led to
growlng conccrn and renewed interest m disab~lity
and disablement. Usually the consequences of disease
are assessed in terms of mortality and morbidity,
Over the past century, most countries in
the world have experienced a fall in
mortality and an increase in life expectancy.
This trend has been accompanied
by or is directly related to another trend,
the so-called health transition, in which
causes of death related to infection,
pregnancy, childbirth and nutrition (socalled
group I causes) become proportionately
less prevalent, and noncommunicable
diseases (group II) and violent or
accidental deaths (group III) more prev...
European report shows
growing inequities in wealth
The European health report 2002 claims that
‘‘all the major determinants of health are
linked to social and economic factors’’.
The report was presented in Copenhagen
on 16 September to the annual meeting of
WHO’s Regional Committee for Europe.
Analysing data gathered during the last
10 years from the 51 Member States in
the region, representing a population of
870 million, the report finds widening gaps