Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. Biology is a vast subject containing many subdivisions, topics, and disciplines. Among the most important topics are five unifying principles that can be said to be the fundamental axioms of modern biology.
Description : The ileal lipid binding protein (ilbp) is a cytoplasmic protein that binds bile acids with high affinity. However evidence
demonstrating the role of this protein in bile acid transport and homeostasis is missing. We created a mouse strain lacking
ilbp (Fabp62/2 mice) and assessed the impact of ilbp deficiency on bile acid homeostasis and transport in vivo. Elimination
of ilbp increased fecal bile acid excretion (54.2%, P,0.05) in female but not male Fabp62/...
Description : Papain-like cysteine proteases of malaria parasites degrade haemoglobin in an acidic food vacuole to provide amino acids
for intraerythrocytic parasites. These proteases are potential drug targets because their inhibitors block parasite
development, and efforts are underway to develop chemotherapeutic inhibitors of these proteases as the treatments for
malaria. Plasmodium knowlesi has recently been shown to be an important human pathogen in parts of Asia. W...
Description : Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative pathology associated with aging characterized by the presence of senile
plaques and neurofibrillary tangles that finally result in synaptic and neuronal loss. The major component of senile plaques
is an amyloid-b protein (Ab). Recently, we characterized the effects of a single intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of Ab
fragment (25–35) oligomers (oAb25–35) for up to 3 weeks in rats and established a clear p...
Description : In syntrophic conversion of butyrate to methane and CO2, butyrate is oxidized to acetate by secondary fermenting bacteria
such as Syntrophomonas wolfei in close cooperation with methanogenic partner organisms, e.g., Methanospirillum hungatei.
This process involves an energetically unfavourable shift of electrons from the level of butyryl-CoA oxidation to the
substantially lower redox potential of proton and/or CO2 reduction, in order to transfer these elect...
Description : Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in immune function may be important in the etiology of papillary thyroid
cancer (PTC). To identify genetic markers in immune-related pathways, we evaluated 3,985 tag single nucleotide
polymorphisms (SNPs) in 230 candidate gene regions (adhesion-extravasation-migration, arachidonic acid metabolism/
eicosanoid signaling, complement and coagulation cascade, cytokine signaling, innate pathogen detection and
Description : Bovine anaplasmosis is a hemoparasitic disease that causes considerable economic loss to the dairy and beef industries.
Cattle immunized with the Anaplasma marginale MSP1 outer membrane protein complex presents a protective humoral
immune response: however, its efficacy is variable. Immunodominant epitopes seem to be a key-limiting factor for the
adaptive immunity. We have successfully demonstrated that critical motifs of the MSP1a functional epitope are es...
Description : A quantum dot (QD)-bound hybridization probe was designed for detection of intracellular pre-miRNA using chitosan (CS)/
poly(c-glutamic acid) (c-PGA) complex as a gene vector. The probe was prepared by assembling thiolated RNA to gold
nanoparticle (Au NP) via Au-S bond and then binding 39-end amine of the RNA to the carboxy group capped on quantum
dot surface. The QD-RNA-Au NP probe was assembled on the vector by mixing with aqueous c-PGA solution and then ...
Description : The production of high levels of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils is associated with the local and systemic
destructive phenotype found in the chronic inflammatory disease periodontitis. In the present study, we investigated
the ability of sulforaphane (SFN) to restore cellular glutathione levels and reduce the hyperactivity of circulating
neutrophils associated with chronic periodontitis. Using differentiated HL60 cells as a neutrophil model, here we...
Description : In Drosophila, RNAi targeting of either dGyk or dGK can result in two alternative phenotypes : adult glycerol hypersensitivity
or larval lethality. Here we compare these two phenotypes at the level of glycerol kinase (GK) phosphorylation activity, dGyk
and dGK-RNA expression, and glycerol levels. We found both phenotypes exhibit reduced but similar levels of GK
phosphorylation activity. Reduced RNA expression levels of dGyk and dGK corresponded with RNAi pr...
Description : Stimulation of a1aAdrenergic Receptors (ARs) is known to have anti-proliferative and hypertrophic effects: however, some
studies also suggests this receptor can increase cell proliferation. Surprisingly, we find the a1aAR expressed in rat-1
fibroblasts can produce either phenotype, depending exclusively on agonist concentration. Stimulation of the a1aAR by
high dose phenylephrine (.1027 M) induces an antiproliferative, hypertrophic response accompanied by r...
Description : The Indo-pacific panther grouper (Chromileptes altiveli) is a predatory fish species and popular imported aquarium fish in the
United States which has been recently documented residing in western Atlantic waters. To date, the most successful marine
invasive species in the Atlantic is the lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles), which, as for the panther grouper, is assumed to have
been introduced to the wild through aquarium releases. However, unlike lionfish, th...
Description : The Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) Y-satellite RNA (Y-Sat) has a small non-protein-coding RNA genome that induces yellowing symptoms in infected Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). How this RNA pathogen induces such symptoms has been a longstanding question. We show that the yellowing symptoms are a result of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-directed RNA silencing of the chlorophyll biosynthetic gene, CHLI. The CHLI mRNA contains a 22-nucleotide (nt) complementary seque...
Legal Reference Publication
Excerpt: Message from the Attorney General. Our system of criminal justice is best described as a search for the truth. Increasingly, the forensic use of DNA technology is an important ally in that search. The development of DNA technology furthers the search for truth by helping police and prosecutors in the fight against violent crime. Through the use of DNA evidence, prosecutors are often able to conclusively establish the guilt of a defendant. Moreover, as some of th...
Government Reference Publication
Excerpt: Phthalates are industrial chemicals widely used in many commercial applications. The general population is exposed to phthalates through consumer products as well as through diet and medical treatments. To determine whether environmental levels of phthalates are associated with altered DNA integrity in human sperm, we selected a population without identified sources of exposure to phthalates. One hundred sixty-eight subjects recruited from the Massachusetts Gene...
Description: The Biological Bulletin is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the field of biology. The journal was established in 1897 as the Zoological Bulletin by Charles Otis Whitman and William Morton Wheeler. In 1899 the title was changed to The Biological Bulletin, and production was transferred to the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, Massachusetts.