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Biology (147,881 Books)


Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. Biology is a vast subject containing many subdivisions, topics, and disciplines. Among the most important topics are five unifying principles that can be said to be the fundamental axioms of modern biology.

 
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Plos One : the Ileal Lipid Binding Protein is Required for Efficie...

By: Antonio Moschetta

Description : The ileal lipid binding protein (ilbp) is a cytoplasmic protein that binds bile acids with high affinity. However evidence demonstrating the role of this protein in bile acid transport and homeostasis is missing. We created a mouse strain lacking ilbp (Fabp62/2 mice) and assessed the impact of ilbp deficiency on bile acid homeostasis and transport in vivo. Elimination of ilbp increased fecal bile acid excretion (54.2%, P,0.05) in female but not male Fabp62/...

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Plos One : Expression, Characterization, and Cellular Localization...

By: Georges Snounou

Description : Papain-like cysteine proteases of malaria parasites degrade haemoglobin in an acidic food vacuole to provide amino acids for intraerythrocytic parasites. These proteases are potential drug targets because their inhibitors block parasite development, and efforts are underway to develop chemotherapeutic inhibitors of these proteases as the treatments for malaria. Plasmodium knowlesi has recently been shown to be an important human pathogen in parts of Asia. W...

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Plos One : Alzheimer’s Disease Related Markers, Cellular Toxicity ...

By: Stephen D. Ginsberg

Description : Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative pathology associated with aging characterized by the presence of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles that finally result in synaptic and neuronal loss. The major component of senile plaques is an amyloid-b protein (Ab). Recently, we characterized the effects of a single intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of Ab fragment (25–35) oligomers (oAb25–35) for up to 3 weeks in rats and established a clear p...

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Plos One : a Proteomic View at the Biochemistry of Syntrophic Buty...

By: Ivo G. Boneca

Description : In syntrophic conversion of butyrate to methane and CO2, butyrate is oxidized to acetate by secondary fermenting bacteria such as Syntrophomonas wolfei in close cooperation with methanogenic partner organisms, e.g., Methanospirillum hungatei. This process involves an energetically unfavourable shift of electrons from the level of butyryl-CoA oxidation to the substantially lower redox potential of proton and/or CO2 reduction, in order to transfer these elect...

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Plos One : Common Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Genes Related...

By: Xiao-ping Miao

Description : Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in immune function may be important in the etiology of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). To identify genetic markers in immune-related pathways, we evaluated 3,985 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 230 candidate gene regions (adhesion-extravasation-migration, arachidonic acid metabolism/ eicosanoid signaling, complement and coagulation cascade, cytokine signaling, innate pathogen detection and antimi...

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Plos One : Epitope-based Vaccines with the Anaplasma Marginale Msp...

By: C. C. Luciana Leite

Description : Bovine anaplasmosis is a hemoparasitic disease that causes considerable economic loss to the dairy and beef industries. Cattle immunized with the Anaplasma marginale MSP1 outer membrane protein complex presents a protective humoral immune response: however, its efficacy is variable. Immunodominant epitopes seem to be a key-limiting factor for the adaptive immunity. We have successfully demonstrated that critical motifs of the MSP1a functional epitope are es...

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Plos One : Cellular Delivery of Quantum Dot-bound Hybridization Pr...

By: Joseph J. Barchi

Description : A quantum dot (QD)-bound hybridization probe was designed for detection of intracellular pre-miRNA using chitosan (CS)/ poly(c-glutamic acid) (c-PGA) complex as a gene vector. The probe was prepared by assembling thiolated RNA to gold nanoparticle (Au NP) via Au-S bond and then binding 39-end amine of the RNA to the carboxy group capped on quantum dot surface. The QD-RNA-Au NP probe was assembled on the vector by mixing with aqueous c-PGA solution and then ...

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Plos One : Sulforaphane Restores Cellular Glutathione Levels and R...

By: Songtao Shi

Description : The production of high levels of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils is associated with the local and systemic destructive phenotype found in the chronic inflammatory disease periodontitis. In the present study, we investigated the ability of sulforaphane (SFN) to restore cellular glutathione levels and reduce the hyperactivity of circulating neutrophils associated with chronic periodontitis. Using differentiated HL60 cells as a neutrophil model, here we...

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Plos One : Disruption of Glycerol Metabolism by Rnai Targeting of ...

By: M. Koichi Iijima

Description : In Drosophila, RNAi targeting of either dGyk or dGK can result in two alternative phenotypes : adult glycerol hypersensitivity or larval lethality. Here we compare these two phenotypes at the level of glycerol kinase (GK) phosphorylation activity, dGyk and dGK-RNA expression, and glycerol levels. We found both phenotypes exhibit reduced but similar levels of GK phosphorylation activity. Reduced RNA expression levels of dGyk and dGK corresponded with RNAi pr...

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Plos One : Stimulation of Α1A Adrenergic Receptors Induces Cellula...

By: Claudio M. Costa-neto

Description : Stimulation of a1aAdrenergic Receptors (ARs) is known to have anti-proliferative and hypertrophic effects: however, some studies also suggests this receptor can increase cell proliferation. Surprisingly, we find the a1aAR expressed in rat-1 fibroblasts can produce either phenotype, depending exclusively on agonist concentration. Stimulation of the a1aAR by high dose phenylephrine (.1027 M) induces an antiproliferative, hypertrophic response accompanied by r...

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Plos One : Modeling the Potential Spread of the Recently Identifie...

By: Francesco Pappalardo

Description : The Indo-pacific panther grouper (Chromileptes altiveli) is a predatory fish species and popular imported aquarium fish in the United States which has been recently documented residing in western Atlantic waters. To date, the most successful marine invasive species in the Atlantic is the lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles), which, as for the panther grouper, is assumed to have been introduced to the wild through aquarium releases. However, unlike lionfish, th...

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Plos Pathogens : Viral Small Interfering Rnas Target Host Genes to...

By: Shou-wei Ding

Description : The Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) Y-satellite RNA (Y-Sat) has a small non-protein-coding RNA genome that induces yellowing symptoms in infected Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). How this RNA pathogen induces such symptoms has been a longstanding question. We show that the yellowing symptoms are a result of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-directed RNA silencing of the chlorophyll biosynthetic gene, CHLI. The CHLI mRNA contains a 22-nucleotide (nt) complementary seque...

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Convicted by Juries, Exonerated by Science : Case Studies in the U...

By: Edward Connors

Legal Reference Publication

Excerpt: Message from the Attorney General. Our system of criminal justice is best described as a search for the truth. Increasingly, the forensic use of DNA technology is an important ally in that search. The development of DNA technology furthers the search for truth by helping police and prosecutors in the fight against violent crime. Through the use of DNA evidence, prosecutors are often able to conclusively establish the guilt of a defendant. Moreover, as some of th...

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The Relationship between Environmental Exposures to Phthalates and...

By: Susan M. Duty

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Phthalates are industrial chemicals widely used in many commercial applications. The general population is exposed to phthalates through consumer products as well as through diet and medical treatments. To determine whether environmental levels of phthalates are associated with altered DNA integrity in human sperm, we selected a population without identified sources of exposure to phthalates. One hundred sixty-eight subjects recruited from the Massachusetts Gene...

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Zoological Bulletin ; Volume 1 : No 1 : Aug : 1897

Description: The Biological Bulletin is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the field of biology. The journal was established in 1897 as the Zoological Bulletin by Charles Otis Whitman and William Morton Wheeler. In 1899 the title was changed to The Biological Bulletin, and production was transferred to the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

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Zoological Bulletin ; Volume 1 : No 2 : Sep : 1897

Description: The Biological Bulletin is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the field of biology. The journal was established in 1897 as the Zoological Bulletin by Charles Otis Whitman and William Morton Wheeler. In 1899 the title was changed to The Biological Bulletin, and production was transferred to the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

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Zoological Bulletin ; Volume 1 : No 3 : Oct : 1897

Description: The Biological Bulletin is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the field of biology. The journal was established in 1897 as the Zoological Bulletin by Charles Otis Whitman and William Morton Wheeler. In 1899 the title was changed to The Biological Bulletin, and production was transferred to the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

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Zoological Bulletin ; Volume 1 : No 4 : Dec : 1897

Description: The Biological Bulletin is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the field of biology. The journal was established in 1897 as the Zoological Bulletin by Charles Otis Whitman and William Morton Wheeler. In 1899 the title was changed to The Biological Bulletin, and production was transferred to the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

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Zoological Bulletin ; Volume 1 : No 5 : Feb : 1898

Description: The Biological Bulletin is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the field of biology. The journal was established in 1897 as the Zoological Bulletin by Charles Otis Whitman and William Morton Wheeler. In 1899 the title was changed to The Biological Bulletin, and production was transferred to the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

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Zoological Bulletin ; Volume 1 : No 6 : May : 1898

Description: The Biological Bulletin is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the field of biology. The journal was established in 1897 as the Zoological Bulletin by Charles Otis Whitman and William Morton Wheeler. In 1899 the title was changed to The Biological Bulletin, and production was transferred to the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

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