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Mixed Layer Mesoscales: a Parameterization for Ogcms : Volume 7, I...

By: M. Luneva; M. S. Dubovikov; C. A. Clayson; V. M. Canuto; A. Leboissetier

Description: NASA, Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY, 10025, USA. We derive and assess a parameterization of the mixed layer vertical and horizontal mesoscale fluxes of an arbitrary tracer. The results, which are obtained by solving the mesoscale dynamic equations and contain no adjustable parameters, are expressed in terms of the large scale fields resolved by coarse resolution OGCMs (ocean global circulation models).

The ne...

Canuto, V. M. and Dubovikov, M. S.: Derivation and assessment of a mixed layer sub- mesoscale model, www.ocean-sci.discuss.net/, last access: 6 January 2009, Ocean Sci. Discuss., 6, 2157–2192, 2009.; Canuto, V. M. and Dubovikov, M. S.: Sub-Mesoscale model for coarse resolution OGCMs, Ocean Sci., to be submitted, 2010.; Canuto, V. M., Howard, A. M., Cheng, Y., Muller, C. J., Leboissetier, A., and Jayne, S. R.: Ocean Turbulence III: N...

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Time and Space Variability of Freshwater Content, Heat Content and...

By: J. Zhao; B. Rudels; M. Korhonen; M. Marnela; A. Wisotzki

Description: Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland. Changes in the hydrography of the Arctic Ocean have recently been reported. The upper ocean has been freshening and pulses of warm Atlantic Water have been observed to spread into the Arctic Ocean. Although these changes have been intensively studied, salinity and temperature variations have less frequently been considered together. Here hydrographic observations, obtained by icebreaker expeditions co...

Aagaard, K. and Coachman, L. K.: Toward an ice-free Arctic ocean, Eos Trans. AGU, 56, 484–486, 1975.; Aagaard, K. and Carmack, E. C.: The role of sea ice and other fresh water in the Arctic circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 14 485–14 498, 1989.; Aagaard, K., Coachman, L. K., and Carmack, E. C.: On the halocline of the Arctic Ocean, Deep-Sea Res., 28, 529–545, 1981.; Anderson, L. G., Björk, G., Holby, O., Jones, E. P., Kattner, G., Koltermann, K.-P., Liljeblad, B., Linde...

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Numerical Implementation and Oceanographic Application of the Ther...

By: W. Wagner; K. Miyagawa; D. R. Jackett; J. H. Reissmann; A. Feistel; G. M. Marion; U. Overhoff; R. Feistel; C. Guder; D. G. Wright

Description: Leibniz-Institut für Ostseeforschung, Seestraße 15, 18119 Warnemünde, Germany. A new seawater standard referred to as the International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10) was adopted in June 2009 by UNESCO/IOC on its 25th General Assembly in Paris, as recommended by the SCOR/IAPSO Working Group 127 (WG127) on Thermodynamics and Equation of State of Seawater. To support the adoption process, WG127 has developed a comprehensive source code ...

Alberty, R. A.: Use of Legendre transforms in chemical thermodynamics, Pure Appl. Chem., 73, 1349–1380, 2001.; Anisimov, M. A.: Critical Phenomena in Liquids and Liquid Crystals, Gordon & Breach Science Publishers, 431 pp., 1991.; Emanuel, K. A.: Atmospheric convection, University Press, New York, Oxford, 1994.; Ewing, M. B., Lilley, T. H., Olofsson, G. M., Ratzsch, M. T., and Somsen, G.: Standard quantities in chemical thermodynamics. Fugacities, activities and equilibr...

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The Reliability of Grazing Rate Estimates from Dilution Experiment...

By: K. McKeon; J. R. Dolan

Description: Marine Microbial Ecology Group, Laboratoire Oéanographique de Villefranche, CNRS UMR 7093, Université Paris VI, Station Zoologique, B P 28, F-06230 Villefranche-Sur-Mer, France. According to a recent global analysis, microzooplankton grazing is surprisingly invariant, ranging only between 59 and 74% of phytoplankton primary production across systems differing in seasonality, trophic status, latitude, or salinity. Thus an important biological process in th...

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Global Surface-ocean PCo2 and Sea–air Co2 Flux Variability from an...

By: C. Sabine; A. Olsen; M. Heimann; D. C. E. Bakker; N. Metzl; R. F. Keeling; C. Rödenbeck

Description: Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, Germany. A temporally and spatially resolved estimate of the global surface-ocean CO2 partial pressure field and the sea–air CO2 flux is presented, obtained by fitting a simple data-driven diagnostic model of ocean mixed-layer biogeochemistry to surface-ocean CO2 partial pressure data from the SOCAT v1.5 database. Results include seasonal, interannual, and short-term (daily...

Archer, D., Kheshgi, H., and E, M.-R.: Multiple timescales for neutralization of fossil fuel CO2, Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 405–408, 1997.; Arthun, M., Bellerby, R. G. J., Omar, A. M., and Schrum, C.: Spatiotemporal variability of air-sea CO2 fluxes in the Barents Sea, as determined from empirical relationships and modeled hydrography, J. Mar. Sys., 98–99, 40–50, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2012.03.005, 2012...

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Increasing Transports of Volume, Heat, and Salt Towards the Arctic...

By: S. Østerhus; R. Kristiansen; H. Hátún; K. M. H. Larsen; B. Hansen; E. Mortensen

Description: Faroe Marine Research Institute, Tórshavn, Faroe Islands. The flow of warm and saline water from the Atlantic Ocean, across the Greenland–Scotland Ridge, into the Nordic Seas – the Atlantic inflow – is split into three separate branches. The most intensive of these branches is the inflow between Iceland and the Faroe Islands (Faroes), which is focused into the Faroe Current, north of the Faroes. The Atlantic inflow is an integral part of the North ...

Østerhus, S., Turrell, W. R., Jónsson, S., and Hansen, B.: Measured volume, heat, and salt fluxes from the Atlantic to the Arctic Mediterranean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L07603, doi:10.1029/2004GL022188, 2005.; Prandle, D., Ballard, G., Flatt, D., Harrison, A. J., Jones, S. E., Knight, P. J., Loch, S., McManus, J., Player, R., and Tappin, A.: Combining modelling and monitoring to determine fluxes of water, dissolved and ...

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Mapping Flow Distortion on Oceanographic Platforms Using Computati...

By: B. Ward; N. O'Sullivan

Description: School of Physics and Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland. Ocean-Atmosphere Fluxes Eddy correlation (EC) is the most direct method to measure fluxes of trace gases over the Earth's surface. In its simplest form, an EC setup consists of a gas sensor and a sonic anemometer. EC is commonly used on land, but its adaptation at sea has proven difficult because of the marine environment, the motion of the research platform (ship or ...

Gagnon, L. and Richard, J. M.: Parallel CFD of a prototype car with OpenFOAM, Tech. rep., Dept of Mech. Eng., Laval University, Québec, Canada, 2010.; Castro, I. P. and Robins, A. G.: the flow around a surface mounted cube in uniform and turbulent streams, J. Fluids. Mech., 79, 307–335, 1977.; Broecker, W. S., Ledwell, J. R., Takahashi, T., Weiss, L. M. R., Memery, L., Peng, T. H., ihne, B. J., and Jnnich, K. O. M.: Isotopic versus micrometeorologic ocean {CO}2

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Simulations of Argo Profilers and of Surface Floating Objects: App...

By: V. Rupolo; C. Pizzigalli

Description: Climate Department, ENEA, Via Anguillarese 301 00060 Rome, Italy. In this work we describe part of the activities performed in the MFSTEP project by means of numerical simulations of ARGO profilers and surface floating objects. Simulations of ARGO floats were used to define the optimal time cycling characteristics of the profilers to maximize independent observations of vertical profiles of temperature and salinity and to minimize the error on the estim...

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Laminae Type and Possible Mechanisms for the Formation of Laminate...

By: C. B. Lange; J. Pätzold; G. Kuhn; I. A. Seeberg-elverfeldt

Description: Research Center Ocean Margins, University of Bremen, P.O. Box 330440, 28334 Bremen, Germany. Laminated sediments in the Shaban Deep, a brine-filled basin in the northern Red Sea, were analyzed with backscattered electron imagery. Here we present possible mechanisms involved in the formation of laminae of various types and homogenous intervals arising from the detailed investigation of multicore GeoB 7805-1 (26 13.9' N and 35 22.6' E; water depth 1447 m) ...

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Density and Absolute Salinity of the Baltic Sea 2006–2009 : Volume...

By: H. Wolf; S. Seitz; B. Adel; P. Spitzer; D. G. Wright; S. Weinreben; R. Feistel; G. Nausch; B. Schneider

Description: Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, 18119 Warnemünde, Germany. The brackish water of the Baltic Sea is a mixture of ocean water from the Atlantic/North Sea with fresh water from various rivers draining a large area of lowlands and mountain ranges. The evaporation-precipitation balance results in an additional but minor excess of fresh water. The rivers carry different loads of salts washed out of the ground, in particular calcium carbonate, which...

Anderko, A. and Lencka, M. M.: Computation of electrical conductivity of multicomponent aqueous systems in wide concentration and temperature ranges, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 36, 1932–1943, 1997.; Brinkmann, F., Dam, N. E., Deák, E., Durbiano, F., Ferrara, E., Fükö, J., Jensen, H. D., Máriássy, M., Shreiner, R. H., Spitzer, P., Sudmeier, U., Surdu, M., and Vyskocil, L.: Primary methods for the measurement of electrolytic conductivity, Accredit. Qual. Assur., 8, 346–353, 200...

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Topaz4: an Ocean-sea Ice Data Assimilation System for the North At...

By: L. Bertino; K. A. Lisæter; A. Korablev; P. R. Oke; P. Sakov; F. Counillon

Description: Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen, Norway. We present a detailed description of TOPAZ4, the latest version of TOPAZ – a coupled ocean-sea ice data assimilation system for the North Atlantic Ocean and Arctic. It is the only operational, large-scale ocean data assimilation system that uses the ensemble Kalman filter. This means that TOPAZ features a time-evolving, state-dependent estimate of the state error covariance. Based on result...

Antonov, J., Locarnini, R., Boyer, T., Mishonov, A., and Garcia, H.: World Ocean Atlas 2005 Volume 2: Salinity, NOAA Atlas NESDIS, 62, 182 pp, 2006.; Bentsen, M., Evensen, G., Drange, H., and Jenkins, A. D.: Coordinate transformation on a sphere using conformal mapping, Mon. Weather Rev., 127, 2733–2740, 1999.; Bertino, L. and Lisæter, K. A.: The TOPAZ monitoring and prediction system for the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, Journal of Operational Oceanography, 2008, 15–18, 2...

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Operational Evaluation of the Mediterranean Monitoring and Forecas...

By: A. Grandi; D. Hayes; V. Lyubartsev; J. A. U. Nilsson; I. Gertman; P. Lorente; J. Gatti; L. Renault; J. Azzopardi; G. Korres; L. Perivoliotis; A. Teruzzi; A. Aydogdu; G. Bolzon; V. Malacic; G. Nardone; M. Tonani; A. Bruschi; S. Pensieri; A. Olita; M. Ravaioli; M. G. Sotillo; R. Goldman; T. Garau; I. Pairaud; A. Drago; G. Zodiatis; S. Sofianos; E. Ozsoy; B. Petelin; A. Mantziafou

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna, Italy. A web-based validation platform has been developed at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) for the Near Real Time validation of the MyOcean-Mediterranean Monitoring and Forecasting Centre products (Med-MFC).

A network for the collection of the in-situ observations, the nested sub-basin forecasting systems model data (provided by the partners of the Mediterrane...

Dobricic. S. and Pinardi, N.: An oceanographic three-dimensional variational data assimilation scheme, Ocean Modell., 22, 89–105, 2008.; Desaubies, Y.: Mersea, Development of a European Ocean Monitoring and Forecasting System – Ocean and Marine applications for Gmes, Ocean Weather Forecasting: An Integrated View of Oceanography, Chapter 19, 449-453, Springer, 2006.; Drevillon, M., Bourdalle-Badie, R., Derval, C., Drillet, Y., Lellouche, J. M., Remy, E., Tranchant, B., Be...

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Argo Data Assimilation Into Hycom with an Enoi Method in the Atlan...

By: L. N. Lima; C. A. S. Tanajura; A. N. Santana; D. Mignac; J. Xie

Description: Graduate Program in Geophysics, Physics Institute and Geosciences Institute, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Brazil. An ocean data assimilation system to assimilate Argo temperature (T) and salinity (S) profiles into the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) was constructed, implemented and evaluated for the first time in the Atlantic Ocean (78° S to 50° N and 98° W to 20° E). The system is based on the ensemble optimal interpolation...

Bell, M. J., Martin, M. J., and Nichols, N. K.: Assimilation of data into an ocean model with systematic errors near the equator, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 130, 873–893, 2004.; Belyaev, K. P., Tanajura, C. A. S., and Tuchkova, N. P.: Comparison of Methods for Argo Drifters Data Assimilation into a Hydrodynamical Model of the Ocean, Oceanology, 52, 593–603, 2012.; Bleck, R.: An oceanic general circulation model framed in hybrid isopycnic-Cartesian coordinates, Ocean Modell...

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On the Influence of Wind and Waves on the Underwater Light Field :...

By: A. MacKe; M. Hieronymi

Description: Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (IFT), Leipzig, Germany. We present a detailed study of the influence of various wind and wave conditions on the distribution of downwelling irradiance within the upper ocean mixed layer down to 100 m water depth. The work is based on a two-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer model with high spatial resolution. We treat conditions that are favorable for the development of extreme ligh...

Darecki, M., Stramski, D., and Sokolski, M.: Measurements of high-frequency light fluctuations induced by ocean surface waves with an underwater porcupine radiometer system, J. Geophys. Res., 116, C00H09, doi:10.1029/2011JC007338, 2011.; Deckert, R. and Michael, K. J.: Lensing effect on underwater levels of UV radiation, J. Geophys. Res., 111, C05014, doi:10.1029/2005JC00333...

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Comparing Historical and Modern Methods of Sea Surface Temperature...

By: J. B. R. Matthews

Description: School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada. Sea Surface Temperature (SST) measurements have been obtained from a variety of different platforms, instruments and depths over the post-industrial period. Today most measurements come from ships, moored and drifting buoys and satellites. Shipboard methods include temperature measurement of seawater sampled by bucket and in engine cooling water intakes. Engine intake t...

Bernaerts, A.: How useful are Atlantic sea-surface temperatures taken during World War II, in: Proceedings Oceanology International '98, Brighton, UK, 10–13 March 1998, Oceanology International, 1998.; Brooks, C. F.: Observing water-surface temperatures at sea, Mon. Weather Rev., 54, 241–253, doi:2.0.CO;2>10.1175/1520-0493(1926)54\textless241:OWTAS\textgreater2.0.CO;2, 1926.; Collins, C. A., Giovando, L. F...

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Impact of Model Resolution on Sea-level Variability Characteristic...

By: L. Brodeau; G. C. Smith; T. Penduff; B. Barnier; M. Juza; J.-m. Molines; A.-m. Treguier

Description: Laboratoire des Ecoulements Géophysiques et Industriels, Grenoble, France. Four global ocean/sea-ice simulations driven by the same realistic 46-year daily atmospheric forcing were performed within the DRAKKAR project at 2°, 1°, ½° and ¼° resolutions. Model sea-level anomalies are collocated over the period 1993–2004 onto the AVISO SLA dataset. These five collocated SLA datasets are then filtered and quantitatively compared over various time and space sca...

Arakawa, A. and Lamb, V.: A potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for the shallow water equations, Mon. Weather Rev., 109, 18–36, 1981.; Barnier, B., Madec, G., Penduff, T., Molines, J.-M., Treguier, A.-M., le Sommer, J., Beckmann, A., Biastoch, A., B{ö}ning, C., Dengg, J., Derval, C., Durand, E., Gulev, S., Remy, E., Talandier, C., Theetten, S., Maltrud, M., McClean, J., and de Cuevas, B.: Impact of partial steps and momentum advection schemes in a global cir...

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How Does Ocean Ventilation Change Under Global Warming? : Volume 3...

By: Fanrong Zeng; J. L. Russell; A. Gnanadesikan

Description: NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ, USA. Since the upper ocean takes up much of the heat added to the earth system by anthropogenic global warming, one would expect that global warming would lead to an increase in stratification and a decrease in the ventilation of the ocean interior. However, multiple simulations in global coupled climate models using an ideal age tracer which is set to zero in the mixed layer and ages at 1 yr/yr...

Altabet, M. A., Murray, D. W., and Prell, W. L.: Climatically linked oscillations in Arabian Sea denitrification over the past 1 m.y.: Implications for the marine nitrogen cycle, Paleoceanography, 14, 732–743, 1999.; Bryan, F. O., Danabasoglu, G., Gent, P. R., and Lindsay, K.: Changes in ocean ventilation during the 21st century in the CCSM3, Ocean Modelling, 15, 141–156, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2006.01.002, 2006.; Conkright, M. E., Antonov, J. I., Baranova, O., Boyer, T. P...

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The Role of Atmosphere and Ocean Physical Processes in Enso : Volu...

By: G. J. Van Oldenborgh; M. Collins; B. J. J. M. Van Den Hurk; S. Y. Philip

Description: Royal Netherlands Institute of Meteorology, De Bilt, The Netherlands. We examine the behaviour of the El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in an ensemble of global climate model simulations with perturbations to parameters in the atmosphere and ocean components respectively. The influence of the uncertainty in these parametrisations on ENSO are investigated systematically. The ensemble exhibits a range of different ENSO behaviour in terms of the...

AchutaRao, K. and Sperber, K. R.: ENSO simulation in coupled ocean-atmosphere models: are the current models better?, Climate Dyn., 27, 1–15, 2006.; AchutaRao, K. and Sperber, K. R.: Simulation of the El Niõ Southern Oscillation: Results from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Climate Dyn., 19, 191–209, 2002.; Annan, J. D., Hargreaves, J. C., Ohgaito, R., Abe-Ouchi, A., and Emori, S.: Efficiently constraining climate sensitivity with ensembles of paleoclimate sim...

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A Nested Atlantic-mediterranean Sea General Circulation Model for ...

By: M. Adani; N. Pinardi; D. Pettenuzzo; C. Fratianni; P. Oddo; M. Tonani

Description: Gruppo Nazionale di Oceanografia Operativa, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Via Aldo Moro 44, 40128 Bologna, Italy. A new numerical general circulation ocean model for the Mediterranean Sea has been implemented nested within an Atlantic general circulation model within the framework of the Marine Environment and Security for the European Area project (MERSEA, Desaubies, 2006). A 4-year twin experiment was carried out from Janu...

Béranger, K., Mortier, L., and Crépon, M.: Seasonal variability of water transports through the Straits of Gibraltar, Sicily and Corsica, derived from a high resolution model of the Mediterranean circulation. Prog. Oceanogr., 66(2–4), 341–364, 2005.; Beron-Vera, F. J., Ochoa, J., and Ripa, P.: A note on boundary conditions for salt and freshwater balances, Ocean Model., 1, 111–118, 1999.; Bozec, A., Bouruet-Aubertot, P., Béranger, K., and Crépon, M.: Mediterranean oceani...

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Computation of a New Mean Dynamic Topography for the Mediterranean...

By: M. Menna; J. Tintoré; M.-h. Rio; B. Barceló; P.-m. Poulain; A. Pascual

Description: CLS Space Oceanography Division, Ramonville-Ste Agne, France. The accurate knowledge of the ocean Mean Dynamic Topography (MDT) is a crucial issue for a number of oceanographic applications and in some areas of the Mediterranean Sea, important limitations have been found pointing to the need of an upgrade. We present a new Mean Dynamic Topography (MDT) that was computed for the Mediterranean Sea. It takes profit of improvements made possible by the...

Adani, M., Srdjan, D., and Pinardi, N.: Quality assessment of a 1985–2007 Mediterranean Sea reanalysis, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 28, 569–589, 2011.; Alemany, F., Quintanilla, L., Velez-Belchí, P., García, A., Cortés, D., Rodríguez, J. M., Fernández de Puelles, M. L., González-Pola, C., and López-Jurado, J. L.: Characterization of the spawning habitat of Atlantic bluefin tuna and related species in the Balearic Sea (western Mediterranean), Prog. Oceanogr., 86, 21–38, 2010....

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