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A Clustering Analysis of Eddies' Spatial Distribution in the South...

By: Z. He; Y. Du; C. Zhou; X. Wang; J. Yi

Description: State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Science and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. Spatial variation is important for studying the mesoscale eddies in the South China Sea (SCS). To investigate such spatial variations, this study made a clustering analysis on eddies' distribution using the K-means approach. Results showed that clustering tendency of ant...

Banerjee, A. and Dave, R. N.: Validating clusters using the hopkins statistic, IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE 2004), Budapest (Hungary), 149–153, 2004.; Brown, M. B. and Forsythe, A. B.: Robust Tests for the Equality of Variances, J. Am. Stat. Assoc., 69, 364–367, doi:10.1080/01621459.1974.10482955, 1974.; Cai, S., Su, J., Gan, Z., and Liu, Q.: The numerical study of the South China S...

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Halocline Water Modification and Along Slope Advection at the Lapt...

By: I. Polyakov; S. Torres-valdes; A. Novikhin; D. Bauch; A. Mix; J. McKay; I. Dmitrenko

Description: GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Wischhofstr. 1–3, 24148 Kiel, Germany. A general pattern in water mass distribution and potential shelf-basin exchanges is revealed at the Laptev Sea continental slope based on hydrochemical and stable oxygen isotope data from summers 2005–2009. Despite considerable interannual variations, a frontal system can be inferred between shelf, continental slope and central Eurasian Basin waters in the upper 100 ...

Anderson, L. G., Andersson, P. S., Björk, G., Peter Jones, E., Jutterström, S., and Wåhlström, I.: Source and formation of the upper halocline of the Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 118, 410–421, doi:10.1029/2012JC008291, 2013.; Bareiss, J. and Görgen, K.: Spatial and temporal variability of sea ice in the Laptev Sea: Analyses and review of satellite passive-microwave data and model results, 1979 to 2002, Global P...

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Operative Forecast of Hydrophysical Fields in the Georgian Black S...

By: D. I. Demetrashvili; A. A. Kordzadze

Description: M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics, Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, 1, M. Alexidze Str., 0193 Tbilisi, Georgia. One of the part of the Black Sea Nowcasting/Forecasting System is the regional forecasting system for the Easternmost part of the Black Sea (including the Georgian water area), which have been developed within the context of the EU International projects ARENA and ECOOP. A core of the regional system is a high-resolution baroclinic re...

Zilitinkevich, S. S. and Monin, A. S.: Turbulence in Dynamic Models of the Atmosphere (in Russian), Nauka, Leningrad, 41 pp., 1971.; Berlyand, G. G.: Method of climatological calculation of the net radiation (in Russian), Meteorologia i gidrologia, Moscow, 6, 9–12, 1960.; Besiktepe, S. T.: Development of the regional forecasting system for the Black Sea, Proceeding of the Second International Conference on Oceanography of Eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea: Similarities...

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Possible Signals of Poleward Surface Ocean Heat Transport, of Arct...

By: J. B. Matthews; J. B. R. Matthews

Description: Tennis Road, Douglas, Isle of Man, British Isles. This is the second of two papers on observational timeseries of top of ocean heat capture. The first reports hourly and daily meridional central tropical Pacific top 3 m timeseries showing high Southern Hemisphere evaporation (2.67 m yr−1) and Northern Hemisphere trapped heat (12 MJ m−2 day−1). We suggested that wind drift/geostrophic stratified gyre circulation tr...

Aagaard, K. and Carmack, E.: The role of sea-ice and other freshwater in the Arctic Circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 14485–14498, doi:10.1029/JC094iC10p14485, 1989.; Aberson, S. D.: Regimes and cycles in tropical cyclone activity in the north Atlantic, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 90, 39–43, doi:10.1175/2008BAMS2549.1, 2009.; Allen, E. J.: The Stockholm Fisheries Confer...

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Turbulent Dispersion Properties from a Model Simulation of the Wes...

By: D. Elhmaidi; X. Carton; H. Nefzi

Description: Faculté des Sciences de Tunis –Université Tunis Elmanar, Tunisie. Using a high resolution primitive equation model of the western Mediterranean Sea, we analyzed the dispersion properties of a set of homogeneously distributed, passive particle pairs. These particles were initially separated by different distances D0 (D0 = 5.55, 11.1 and 16.5 km), and were seeded in the model at initial depths of 44 and 500 m.

Babiano, A., Basdevant, C., Leroy, P., and Sadourny, R.: Relative dispersion in two-dimensional turbulence, J. Fluid Mech., 214, 535–557, 1990.; Conkright, M. E., Locarnini, R. A., Garcia, H. E. H.E., O'Brian, T. D., Boyer, T., Stephens, C. and Antonov, J. I.: World Ocean Atlas 2001: Objective Analyses, Data Statistics, and Figures, CD-ROM Documentation 2001, National Oceanographic Data Center, Silver Spring, MD, 17, 2002.; Da Silva, A. M., Young, C. C., and Levitus, S.:...

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Development of a New Expendable Probe for the Study of Pelagic Eco...

By: D. Donis; G. M. R. Manzella; M. Marcelli; A. Di Maio; U. Mainardi

Description: Departement DECOS, Tuscia University, Via S. Giovanni Decollato n. 1, 01100 Viterbo, Italy. Physical and biological processes of the marine ecosystem have a high spatial and temporal variability, whose study is possible only through high resolution and synoptic observations. The Temperature and Fluorescence Launchable Probe was charted in order to answer to the claim of a cost effective temperature and fluorescence expendable profiler, to be used in shi...

Antal, T. K., Venediktov, P. S., Matorin, D. N., et al.: Measurements of phytoplankton photosynthesis rate using a pump and probe fluorometer, Oceanologia, 43, 291–313, 2001.; Balch, W. and Byrne, C. F.: Factors affecting the estimate of primary production from space, Geophys. Res. J., 99, 7555–7570, 1994.; Bosc, E., Bricaud, A., and Antoine, D.: Seasonal and interannual variability in algal biomass and primary production in the Mediterranean Sea as derived from 4 years ...

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Technical Note: Detection of Gas Bubble Leakage Via Correlation of...

By: C. Papenberg; J. Schneider Von Deimling

Description: Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Rostock, Germany. Hydroacoustic detection of natural gas release from the seafloor has been conducted in the past by using singlebeam echosounders. In contrast, modern multibeam swath mapping systems allow much wider coverage, higher resolution, and offer 3-D spatial correlation. Up to the present, the extremely high data rate hampers water column backscatter investigations and more sophisticated visualization ...

Anderson, V. C.: Sound Scattering from a Fluid Sphere, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 22, 426–431, 1950.; Best, J. L., Parsons, D. R., Simmons, S. M., and Oberg, K. A.: Coherent Flow Structures over Alluvial Sand Dunes revealed by Multibeam Echo Sounding, Marine and River Dune Dynamics, 1–3, 25–30, 2008.; Clift, R., Grace, J. R., and Weber, M. E.: Bubbles, Drops, Particles, New York, Academic Press., 380, 1978.; De Moustier, C.: State of the art swath bathymetry survey systems, In...

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Physical Forcing and Physical/Biochemical Variability of the Medit...

By: N. Kress; A. Crise; S. Carniel; A. Gogou; S. Marullo; E. Garcia-ladona; P. Malanotte-rizzoli; J. M. Garcia-lafuente; H. Kontoyannis; J. Siokou-frangou; D. Hainbucher; E. Kraskapoulou; P.-m. Poulain; E. Souvermezoglou; A. Rubino; Y. Ashkenazy; M. Ribera D'Alcalà; V. Cardin; A. Pascual; V. Artale; M. Gacic; V. Kovacevic; A. Bergamasco; M. Gregoire; S. Brenner; A. Incarbona; G. L. Borzelli-eusebi; K. Schroeder; T. Tanhua; G. Kroskos; J. Font; A. Theocharis; F. D'Ortenzio; E. Ozsoy; W. Roether; G. Triantafyllou; M. Sprovieri; M. Orlic; M. G. Mazzocchi; S. Sofianos; M. Alvarez; G. Civitarese; J. Tintoré

Description: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA. This paper is the outcome of a workshop held in Rome in November 2011 on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the POEM (Physical Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean) program. In the workshop discussions, a number of unresolved issues were identified for the physical and biogeochemical properties of the Mediterranean Sea as a whole, i.e., comprising the Western and Eastern sub-basins. O...

Adani, M., Dobricic, S., and Pinardi, N.: Quality assessment of a 1985–2007 Mediterranean Sea reanalysis, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 28, 569–589, 2011.; Ait-Ameur, N. and Goyet, C.: Distribution and transport of natural and anthropogenic CO2 in the Gulf of Cadiz, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 53, 1329–1343, 2006.; Alemany, F., Quintanilla, L., Velez-Belchí, P., García, A., Cortés, D., Rodríguez, J. M., Fernández de Puelles, M. L., González-Pola, C., and López-Jurado, J...

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Frequency- or Amplitude-dependent Effects of the Atlantic Meridion...

By: S. Y. Philip; L. A. Te Raa; H. A. Dijkstra; G. J. Van Oldenborgh

Description: Royal Netherlands Institute of Meteorology, De Bilt, The Netherlands. Using the ECHAM5/MPI-OM model, we study the relation between the variations in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and both the Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) amplitude. In a 17-member 20C3M/SRES-A1b ensemble for 1950–2100 the Pacific response to AMOC variations on different time scales and amplitudes is considered....

Biasutti, M., Held, I. M., Sobel, A. H., and Giannini, A.: SST Forcings and Sahel Rainfall Variability in Simulations of the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries, J. Climate, 21, 3471–3486, doi:10.1175/2007JCLI1896.1, 2006.; Br{ö}nnimann, S.: Impact of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on European climate, Rev. Geophys., 45, RG3003, doi:10.1029/2006RG000199, 2007.; Chang, P., Zhang, R., Hazeleger, W., Wen, C., Wan, X., Ji, L., Haarsma, R., Breugem, W.-P., and Seidel, H.: An O...

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Suspended Particles in the Canada Basin from Optical and Bottle Da...

By: E. C. Carmack; S. E. Allen; F. A. McLaughlin; J. M. Jackson

Description: Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, 6339 Stores Rd, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada. It is expected that coastal erosion, upwelling and increased river runoff from Arctic warming will increase the concentration of suspended particles in the Arctic Ocean. Here we analyze in situ transmissometer and fluorometer data from the summers of 2003 through 2008 and bottle-derived particulate organic carbon (POC) an...

Ashjian, C. J., Gallager, S. M., and Plourde, S.: Transport of plankton and particles between the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas during summer 2002, described using a Video Plankton Recorder, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 52, 3259–3280, 2005.; Baker, E. T. and Lavelle, J. W.: The effect of particle size on the the light attenuation coefficient of natural suspensions, J. Geophys. Res., 89, 8179–8203, 1984.; Bates, N. R., Hansell, D. A., Moran, S. B., and Codispoti, L. A.: Seasonal and...

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A Global Comparison of Argo and Satellite Altimetry Observations :...

By: G. Larnicol; P.-y. Le Traon; S. Guinehut; A.-l. Dhomps

Description: CLS, Space Oceanography Division, Ramonville Saint-Agne, France. Differences and complementarities between Sea Level Anomalies (SLA) deduced from altimeter measurements and dynamic height anomalies (DHA) calculated from Argo in situ temperature (T) and salinity (S) profiles are globally analyzed. Compared to previous studies, Argo data allows a much better spatial coverage of all oceans and particularly the Southern Ocean, the use of salin...

Antonov, J. I., Boyer, T. P., Mishonov, A. V., and Garcia, H. E.: Salinity. Vol. 2, World Ocean Atlas 2005, NOAA Atlas NESDIS, 65, 182 pp., 2006.; AVISO: Ssalto/Duacs user Handbook: (M)SLA and (M)ADT near-real time and delayed time products, SALP-MU-P-EA-21065-CLS ed. 1.9, 39 pp., 2008.; Bell, M. J., Lefebvre, M., Le Traon, P. Y., Smith, N., and Wilmer-Becker, K.: The Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment, Oceanography, 22(3), 14–21, 2009.; Cazenave, A., Dominh, K., ...

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The Analysis of Large-scale Turbulence Characteristics in the Indo...

By: V. Kamenkovich; K. O'Driscoll

Description: Institute of Oceanography, Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Hamburg, Bundesstrasse 53, 20146 Hamburg, Germany. Turbulence characteristics in the Indonesian seas on the horizontal scale of order of 100 km were calculated with a regional model of the Indonesian seas circulation in the area based on the Princeton Ocean Model (POM). As is well known, the POM incorporates the Mellor–Yamada turbulence closure scheme. The calculated cha...

Ezer, T.: On the seasonal mixed layer simulated by a basin-scale ocean model and the Mellor-Yamada turbulence scheme, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 16843–16855, 2000.; Alford, M., Gregg, M., and Ilyas, M.: Diapycnal mixing in the Banda Sea: results of the first microstructure measurements in the Indonesian throughflow, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 2741–2744, 1999.; Berger, G., Bennekom, A. V., and Kloosterhuis, H.: Radon profiles in theIndonesian archipelago, Neth. J. Sea Res., 22,...

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Chl A Trends in European Seas Estimated Using Ocean-colour Product...

By: V. Lyubarstev; N. Pinardi; S. Colella; R. Santoleri; G. Coppini; T. Christiansen

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Bologna, Italy. Ocean-colour remote-sensing products have been used to estimate Chl a trends in European seas. This work aims to develop a new indicator based on ocean-colour data for the European Environment Agency (EEA). The new indicator, called CSI023(+), produced from satellite ocean-colour products from the MyOcean Marine Core Service (www.myocean....

D'Ortenzio, F. and Ribera d'Alcalà, M.: On the trophic regimes of the Mediterranean Sea: a satellite analysis, Biogeosciences, 6, 139–148, doi:10.5194/bg-6-139-2009, 2009.; Ferreira, J. G., Andersen, J. H., Borja, A., Bricker, S. B., Camp, J., Cardoso da Silva, M., Garcés, E., Heiskanen, A.-S., Humborg, C., Ignatiades, L., Lancelot, C., Menesguen, A., Tett, P., Hoepffner, N., and Claussen, U.: Overview of eutrophication...

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Exploring the Isopycnal Mixing and Helium-heat Paradoxes in a Suit...

By: M.-a. Pradal; R. Abernathey; A. Gnanadesikan

Description: Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA. This paper uses a suite of Earth System models which simulate the distribution of He isotopes and radiocarbon to examine two paradoxes in Earth science. The helium-heat paradox refers to the fact that helium emissions to the deep ocean are far lower than would be expected given the rate of geothermal heating, since both are thought to be the result of radioact...

Abernathey, R. and Marshall, J.: Global surface eddy diffusivities derived from satellite altimetry, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 118, 901–916, 2013.; Abernathey, R., Marshall, J., Shuckburgh, E., and Mazloff, M.: Enhancement of mesoscale eddy stirring at steering levels in the Southern Ocean, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40, 170–185, 2010.; Abernathey, R., Ferreira, D., and Klocker, A.: Diagnostics of isopycnal mixing in a circumpolar channel, Ocean Model., 72, 1–16, 2013.; Anderson...

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Time and Space Variability of Freshwater Content, Heat Content and...

By: M. Marnela; A. Wisotzki; M. Korhonen; J. Zhao; B. Rudels

Description: Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland. The Arctic Ocean gains freshwater mainly through river discharge, precipitation and the inflowing low salinity waters from the Pacific Ocean. In addition the recent reduction in sea ice volume is likely to influence the surface salinity and thus contribute to the freshwater content in the upper ocean. The present day freshwater storage in the Arctic Ocean appears to be sufficient to maintain the upper...

Aagaard, K. and Carmack, E. C.: The role of sea ice and other fresh water in the Arctic circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 14 485–14 498, 1989.; Aagaard, K., Coachman, L. K., and Carmack, E. C.: On the halocline of the Arctic Ocean, Deep-Sea Res., 28, 529–545, 1981.; Anderson, L. G., Björk, G., Holby, O., Jones, E. P., Kattner, G., Koltermann, K.-P., Liljeblad, B., Lindegren, R., Rudels, B., and Swift, J. H.: Water masses and circulation in the Eurasian Basin: results fr...

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Modeling Ocean Response to an Extreme Bora Event in Northern Adria...

By: S. Sofianos; J. Jerman; M. Jeromel; A. Papapostolou; M. Ravdas; A. Mantziafou; A. Fettich; P. Smerkol; B. Strajnar; M. Ličer; V. Malačič; S. Petan; J. Cedilnik

Description: NIB-MBS, Marine Biology Station, National Institute of Biology, Ljubljana, Slovenia. We study the performances of (a) fully two-way coupled atmosphere–ocean modeling system and (b) one-way coupled ocean model (forced by the atmospheric model hourly output), as compared to the available in situ (mooring and CTD) measurements during and after an strong Bora wind event in February 2012, which led to extreme air–sea interactions and record breaking sea...

Artegiani, A., Bregant, D., Paschini, E., Pinardi, N., Raicich, F., and Russo, A.: The Adriatic Sea General Circulation I: Air-Sea Interactions and Water Mass Structure, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 1492–1514, 2.0.CO;2>doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1997)027<1492:TASGCP>2.0.CO;2, 1997.; Benetazzo, A., Bergamasco, A., Bonaldo, D., Falcieria, F. M., Sclavo, M., Langone, L., a nd Carniel, S.: Response of the Adriatic Se...

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Sensors and Instruments for Oceanic Dissolved Carbon Measurements ...

By: L. Mintrop; A. Körtzinger; A. Hannides; U. Schuster

Description: University of East Anglia, School of Environmental Sciences, Norwich, UK, NR4 7TJ, UK. Highly accurate and precise measurements of marine carbon components are required in the study of the marine carbon cycle, particularly when investigating the causes for its variability from seasonal to interannual timescales. This is especially true in the investigation of the consequences of anthropogenic influences.

The analysis of any component requires ...

Aluwihare, L. I., Repeta, D. J., and Chen, R. F.: A major biopolymeric component to dissolved organic carbon in surface sea water, Nature, 387, 166–169, 1997.; Bellerby, R. G. J., Olsen, A., Johannessen, T., and Croot, P.: A high precision spectrophotometric method for on-line shipboard seawater pH measurements: the automated marine pH sensor (AMpS), Tallanta, 56, 61–69, 2002.; Belzile, C., Roesler, C. S., Christensen, J. P., Shakhova, N., and Semiletov, I.: Fluorescence...

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Is Coccolithophore Distribution in the Mediterranean Sea Related t...

By: M. Álvarez; T. Tanhua; P. Ziveri; A. M. Oviedo

Description: Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra, Spain. The Mediterranean Sea is considered a hot-spot for climate change, being characterized by oligotrophic to ultra-oligotrophic waters and rapidly changing carbonate chemistry. Coccolithophores are considered a dominant phytoplankton group in these waters. As a marine calcifying organism they are expected to respond to the ongoin...

Austin, M. P.: Spatial prediction of species distribution: an interface between ecological theory and statistical modelling, Ecol. Model., 157, 101–118, 2002.; Álvarez, M., Sanleón-Bartolomé, H., Tanhua, T., Mintrop, L., Luchetta, A., Cantoni, C., Schroeder, K., and Civitarese, G.: The CO2 system in the Mediterranean Sea: a basin wide perspective, Ocean Sci. Discuss., 10, 1447–1504, doi:10.5194/osd-10-1447-201...

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137Cs Off Fukushima Dai-ichi, Japan – Model Based Estimates of Dil...

By: I. Kriest; H. Dietze

Description: IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany. In the aftermath of an earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011 radioactive 137Cs was discharged from a damaged nuclear power plant to the sea off Fukushima Dai-ichi, Japan. Here we explore its dilution and fate with a state-of-the-art global ocean general circulation model, which is eddy-resolving in the region of interest. We find apparent consistenc...

Antonov, J. I., Locarnini, R. A., Boyer, T. P., Mishonov, A. V., Garcia, H. E., and Levitus, S.: World Ocean Atlas 2005, Volume 2: Salinity. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 62, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 182 pp., 2006.; Bailly du Bois, P., Laguionie, P., Boust, D., Korsakissok, I., Didier, D., and Fiévet, B.: Estimation of marine source-term following Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, Journal of Environmental Radioactivity,

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Export of Arctic Freshwater Components Through the Fram Strait 199...

By: E. Falck; E. Hansen; P. Dodd; K. Cox; E. J. Rohling; A. Beszczynska-möller; U. Schauer; B. Rabe; G. Kattner; A. MacKensen

Description: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany. The East Greenland Current in the Western Fram Strait is an important pathway for liquid freshwater export from the Arctic Ocean to the Nordic Seas and the North Atlantic subpolar gyre. We analysed five hydrographic surveys and data from moored current meters around 79° N in the Western Fram Strait between 1998 and 2010. To estimate the composition of southward ...

Aaboe, S., Nost, O. A., and Hansen, E.: Along-slope variability of barotropic transport in the nordic seas: simplified dynamics tested against observations, J. Geophys. Res., 114, C03009, doi:10.1029/2008JC005094, 2009.; Abrahamsen, E. P., Meredith, M. P., Falkner, K. K., Torres-Valdes, S., Leng, M. J., Alkire, M. B., Bacon, S., Laxon, S. W., Polyakov, I., and Ivanov, V.: Tracer-derived freshwater composition of the Sibe...

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