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Plos One : Formation of a Unique Cluster of G-quadruplex Structure...

By: Jianming Qiu

Description : G-quadruplexes are tetraplex structures of nucleic acids that can form in G-rich sequences. Their presence and functional role have been established in telomeres, oncogene promoters and coding regions of the human chromosome. In particular, they have been proposed to be directly involved in gene regulation at the level of transcription. Because the HIV-1 Nef protein is a fundamental factor for efficient viral replication, infectivity and pathogenesis in vit...

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Plos One : Incidence and Predictors of Pregnancy Among a Cohort of...

By: Susan Marie Graham

Description : Nearly one-third of women became pregnant within three years of initiating ART, highlighting the need for integrated services to prevent unintended pregnancies and reduce periconception-related risks for HIV-infected women choosing to conceive. Association with younger age and disclosure suggests a role for early and couples-based safer conception counselling.

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Plos One : Hybrid Sequencing Approach Applied to Human Fecal Metag...

By: Jonathan H. Badger

Description : Natural environments represent an incredible source of microbial genetic diversity. Discovery of novel biomolecules involves biotechnological methods that often require the design and implementation of biochemical assays to screen clone libraries. However, when an assay is applied to thousands of clones, one may eventually end up with very few positive clones which, in most of the cases, have to be ‘‘domesticated’’ for downstream characterization and applic...

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Plos One : the Effects of CA2+ and Mgadp on Force Development Duri...

By: Miklos S. Kellermayer

Description : The goal of this study was to compare the effects of Ca2+ and MgADP activation on force development in skeletal muscles during and after imposed length changes. Single fibres dissected from the rabbit psoas were (i) activated in pCa2+4.5 and pCa2+6.0, or (ii) activated in pCa2+4.5 before and after administration of 10 mM MgADP. Fibres were activated in sarcomere lengths (SL) of 2.65 mm and 2.95 mm, and subsequently stretched or shortened (5%SL at 1.0 SL.s21...

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Plos One : Application of Gurson–tvergaard–needleman Constitutive ...

By: Laurent Kreplak

Description : Based on meso-damage mechanics and finite element analysis, the aim of this paper is to describe the feasibility of the Gurson–Tvergaard–Needleman (GTN) constitutive model in describing the tensile behavior of corroded reinforcing bars. The orthogonal test results showed that different fracture pattern and the related damage evolution process can be simulated by choosing different material parameters of GTN constitutive model. Compared with failure paramete...

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Plos One : Segregation of Lexical and Sub-lexical Reading Processe...

By: Antoni Rodriguez-fornells

Description : A fundamental issue in cognitive neuroscience is the existence of two major, sub-lexical and lexical, reading processes and their possible segregation in the left posterior perisylvian cortex. Using cortical electrostimulation mapping, we identified the cortical areas involved on reading either orthographically irregular words (lexical, ‘‘direct’’ process) or pronounceable pseudowords (sublexical, ‘‘indirect’’ process) in 14 right-handed neurosurgical patie...

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Plos One : Reticulamoeba is a Long-branched Granofilosean Cercozoa...

By: Purificacion Lopez-garcıa

Description : We sequenced the 18S ribosomal RNA gene of seven isolates of the enigmatic marine amoeboflagellate Reticulamoeba Grell, which resolved into four genetically distinct Reticulamoeba lineages, two of which correspond to R. gemmipara Grell and R. minor Grell, another with a relatively large cell body forming lacunae, and another that has similarities to both R. minor and R. gemmipara but with a greater propensity to form cell clusters. These lineages together f...

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Plos One : Placebo Analgesia Affects Brain Correlates of Error Pro...

By: Wael El-deredy

Description : Placebo analgesia (PA) is accompanied by decreased activity in pain-related brain regions, but also by greater prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation, which has been suggested to reflect increases in top-down cognitive control and regulation of pain. Here we test whether PA is associated with altered prefrontal monitoring functions that could adjust nociceptive processing to a mismatch between expected and experienced pain. We recorded event-related potentials ...

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Plos One : a Novel Educational Strategy Targeting Health Care Work...

By: D. William Cameron

Description : This innovative curriculum utilized technology to target HCWs with limited access to educational resources. Participants benefited from technical skills acquired through the process, and could continue working within their underserved communities while participating in the online component and then implement interventions that successfully converted theoretical knowledge to action to improve integration of HIV care into primary care

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Plos One : Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative Real-time Pcr...

By: Shu-biao Wu

Description : Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), a sensitive technique for gene expression analysis, depends on the stability of the reference genes used for data normalization. Caragana intermedia, a native desert shrub with strong drought-resistance, sand-fixing capacity and high forage value that is widespread in the desert land of west and northwest China, has not been investigated regarding the identification of reference ...

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Plos One : Willingness to Use the Internet to Seek Information on ...

By: Patrick S. Sullivan

Description : The MSM interviewed in Ho Chi Minh City reported a high willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care. In a context where new media are increasingly considered as promising options for reaching this HIV risk group, further research should be conducted on developing and testing tailored online tools adapted to the needs of Vietnamese MSM.

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Plos One : Ser, Volume 8

By: Zhengguang Zhang

Description : To investigate the plant genes affected by Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) infection, we applied a cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism technique to screen genes with differential expression. A serine/threonine kinase-like (NbSTKL) gene of Nicotiana benthamiana is upregulated after BaMV infection. NbSTKL contains the homologous domain of Ser/Thr kinase. Knocking down the expression of NbSTKL by virus-induced gene silencing reduced the accumulation of BaMV...

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Plos One : a Duplex Pcr-based Assay for Measuring the Amount of Ba...

By: Dipankar Chatterji

Description : The assay protocol we describe here is a simple and relatively inexpensive method of measuring contamination levels in nucleic acid samples. This provides a new way to establish quantification and purification protocols for molecular biology and genomics in novel heterotrophic protist species. Guidelines are provided to develop a similar protocol for use with any protistan culture. This assay method is recommended where qPCR equipment is unavailable, where ...

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Plos One : Cycles and the Qualitative Evolution of Chemical System...

By: Claude Prigent

Description : Cycles are abundant in most kinds of networks, especially in biological ones. Here, we investigate their role in the evolution of a chemical reaction system from one self-sustaining composition of molecular species to another and their influence on the stability of these compositions. While it is accepted that, from a topological standpoint, they enhance network robustness, the consequence of cycles to the dynamics are not well understood. In a former study...

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Plos One : Ability of Procalcitonin to Discriminate Infection from...

By: T. Mark Doherty

Description : Using a pleural model, this proof-of-principle study confirmed that procalcitonin is a biomarker specific for infection and is not affected by non-infective inflammation. Procalcitonin is superior to CRP in distinguishing infection from non-infective pleural diseases, even when controlled for the level of systemic inflammation.

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Plos One : Ischemic Postconditioning Decreases Cerebral Edema and ...

By: Anthony E. Kline

Description : Ischemic postconditioning is an effective method to prevent brain edema and improve BBB permeability and could be used during relief of severe carotid stenosis.

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Plos One : Phenytoin Inhibits the Persistent Sodium Current in Neo...

By: Massimo Avoli

Description : The persistent Na+ current (INaP) is important for neuronal functions and can play a role in several pathologies, although it is small compared to the transient Na+ current (INaT). Notably, INaP is not a real persistent current because it undergoes inactivation with kinetics in the order of tens of seconds, but this property has often been overlooked. Na+ channel blockers, drugs used for treating epilepsy and other diseases, can inhibit INaP, but the mechan...

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Plos One : Nociceptive Transmission to Rat Primary Somatosensory C...

By: Anthony E. Kline

Description : CO2-laser C-fibre evoked cortical potentials (LCEPs) is a potentially useful animal model for studies of pain mechanisms. A potential confounding factor when assessing analgesic effects of systemically administered drugs using LCEP is sedation. This study aims to clarify : 1) the relation between level of anaesthesia and magnitude of LCEP, 2) the effects of a sedative and an analgesic on LCEP and dominant EEG frequency 3) the effects of a sedative and analg...

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Plos One : Computational Mapping Identifies Localized Mechanisms f...

By: Vladimir E. Bondarenko

Description : Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common heart rhythm disorder in the Western world and a common cause of hospitalization and death. Pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies have met with limited success, in part due to an incomplete understanding of the underlying mechanisms for AF. AF is traditionally characterized by spatiotemporally disorganized electrical activation and, although initiating triggers for AF are described, it is unclear whether A...

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Plos One : Ipad-assisted Measurements of Duration Estimation in Ps...

By: Warren H. Meck

Description : Handheld devices with touchscreen controls have become widespread in the general population. In this study, we examined the duration estimates (explicit timing) made by patients in a major general hospital and healthy control subjects using a custom iPad application. We methodically assessed duration estimates using this novel device. We found that both psychiatric and non-psychiatric patients significantly overestimated time periods compared with healthy c...

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